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Migrating legacy package build rules

This document provides instructions on migrating the component build rules in your BUILD.gn files from the legacy [package()] template to the new fuchsia_package().

For more details on using the new component build rules, see the Build components developer guide.

Migration examples

The examples below demonstrate some common migration scenarios.

Simple package() example

This example is adapted from //src/sys/component_index/BUILD.gn.

Pre-migration

import("//build/config.gni")
import("//build/package.gni")                              # <1>
import("//build/rust/rustc_binary.gni")
import("//build/test/test_package.gni")                    # <1>

rustc_binary("component_index_bin") {                      # <2>
  name = "component_index"
  # Generate a ":bin_test" target for unit tests
  with_unit_tests = true
  edition = "2018"
  deps = [ ... ]
}

package("component_index") {                               # <3>
  deps = [ ":component_index_bin" ]

  binaries = [
    {
      name = "component_index"
    },
  ]

  meta = [
    {
      path = rebase_path("meta/component_index.cmx")       # <4>
      dest = "component_index.cmx"                         # <4>
    },
  ]

  resources = [ ... ]
}

test_package("component_index_tests") {                    # <5>
  deps = [ ":component_index_bin_test" ]

  tests = [
    {
      name = "component_index_bin_test"                    # <5>
      dest = "component_index_tests"                       # <5>
    },
  ]
}

Post-migration

import("//build/config.gni")
import("//build/rust/rustc_binary.gni")
import("//build/components.gni")                   # <1>

rustc_binary("component_index_bin") {                      # <2>
  name = "component_index"
  # Generate a ":bin_test" target for unit tests
  with_unit_tests = true
  edition = "2018"
  deps = [ ... ]
}

fuchsia_package_with_single_component("component_index") { # <3>
  manifest = "meta/component_index.cmx"                    # <4>
  deps = [ ":component_index_bin" ]
}

fuchsia_unittest_package("component_index_tests") {        # <5>
  deps = [ ":component_index_bin_test" ]
}

The following key elements are called out in the code example above:

  1. Necessary imports are replaced by //build/components.gni.
  2. Targets that generate executables or data files are not expected to change in a migration.
  3. The original package() declaration contains a single component manifest (listed under meta). The fuchsia_package_with_single_component() template can replace this, referencing the same manifest file.
  4. Under package(), the manifest is given a specific destination ("component_index.cmx") to place it in the final package. With the new templates, the manifest is renamed according to the target name. As a result, the launch URL for the component remains the same.
  5. For a simple test package that does not contain multiple test components, the fuchsia_unittest_package() template replaces test_package(). A basic test component manifest is automatically generated and meta/component_index_tests.cmx is no longer needed.

Complex package() example

This example is adapted from //src/fonts/BUILD.gn.

Pre-migration

import("//build/package.gni")                            # <1>
import("//build/rust/rustc_binary.gni")
import("//build/test/test_package.gni")                  # <1>
import("//src/fonts/build/fonts.gni")

rustc_binary("font_provider") {                          # <2>
  name = "font_provider"
  # Generate a ":bin_test" target for unit tests
  with_unit_tests = true
  edition = "2018"

  deps = [ ... ]
  sources = [ ... ]
}

package("pkg") {
  package_name = "fonts"

  deps = [ ":font_provider" ]

  binaries = [
    {
      name = "font_provider"
    },
  ]
  meta = [                                               # <3>
    {
      path = rebase_path("meta/fonts.cmx")               # <3>
      dest = "fonts.cmx"                                 # <4>
    },
    {
      path = rebase_path("meta/fonts.cml")               # <3>
      dest = "fonts.cm"                                  # <4>
    },
  ]
}

test_package("font_provider_unit_tests") {
  deps = [ ":font_provider_test" ]

  v2_tests = [
    {
      name = "font_provider_bin_test"                    # <4>
    },
  ]
}

Post-migration

import("//build/rust/rustc_binary.gni")
import("//src/fonts/build/fonts.gni")
import("//build/components.gni")                         # <1>

rustc_binary("font_provider") {                          # <2>
  name = "font_provider"
  # Generate a ":bin_test" target for unit tests
  with_unit_tests = true
  edition = "2018"

  deps = [ ... ]
  sources = [ ... ]
}

fuchsia_component("font_provider_cm") {                  # <3>
  manifest = "meta/fonts.cml"
  component_name = "fonts"                               # <4>
  deps = [ ":font_provider" ]
}

fuchsia_component("font_provider_cmx") {                 # <3>
  manifest = "meta/fonts.cmx"
  component_name = "fonts"                               # <4>
  deps = [ ":font_provider" ]
}

fuchsia_package("pkg") {
  package_name = "fonts"
  deps = [
    ":font_provider_cm",                                 # <3>
    ":font_provider_cmx",                                # <3>
  ]
}

fuchsia_component("font_provider_unit_tests_cmp") {
  testonly = true
  manifest = "meta/font_provider_bin_test.cml"
  component_name = "font_provider_bin_test"              # <4>
  deps = [ ":font_provider_test" ]
}

fuchsia_test_package("font_provider_unit_tests") {
  test_components = [ ":font_provider_unit_tests_cmp" ]
}

The following key elements are called out in the code example above:

  1. Necessary imports are replaced by //build/components.gni.
  2. Targets that generate executables or data files are not expected to change in a migration.
  3. If a package() includes multiple distinct components using the meta field, each one must be broken out into a separate fuchsia_component() and collected together in the fuchsia_package() using deps.
  4. Each fuchsia_component() uses the component_name field to map the manifest destination in the final package. Without this, they are placed according to the target name, which affects the launch URL of the component. This is true for both fuchsia_package() and fuchsia_test_package().

Test package considerations

The example below highlights some key differences between the legacy [test_package()] template and the new fuchsia_test_package().

Pre-migration

import("//build/package.gni")                            # <1>
import("//build/test/test_package.gni")                  # <1>

executable("foo_bin_test") { ... }

test_package("foo_tests") {                              # <1>
  deps = [ ":foo_bin_test" ]                             # <2>

  tests = [                                              # <3>
    {
      name = "foo_test"                                  # <2>
      log_settings = {
        max_severity = "ERROR"
      }
    }
  ]
}

Post-migration

import("//build/components.gni")                         # <1>

executable("foo_bin_test") { ... }

fuchsia_component("foo_test") {                          # <2>
  testonly = true
  manifest = "meta/foo_test.cmx"
  deps = [ ":foo_bin_test" ]
}

fuchsia_test_package("foo_tests") {                      # <1>
  test_components = [ ":foo_test" ]                      # <2>

  test_specs = {                                         # <3>
    log_settings = {
      max_severity = "ERROR"
    }
  }
}

The following key elements are called out in the code example above:

  1. Replace necessary imports with //build/components.gni and rename test_package() to fuchsia_test_package().
  2. Create a fuchsia_component() to encapsulate the test components previously added with the tests field. Reference the components in the package with the new test_components field.

  3. Both template families support test specifications, such as restricting to specific test environments or restricting log severity.

Remove legacy allowlist

The deprecated_package group in //build/BUILD.gn contains an allowlist of build files still using the legacy package() template. Once you have successfully migrated your build files to the new templates, remove the affected lines from the group. Removing the allowlist entries prevents future changes from re-introducing uses of the legacy templates.

For example, if you migrated the files under //src/fonts to the new templates, you would find and remove all the related files paths in //build/BUILD.gn:

group("deprecated_package") {
  ...
  visibility += [
    ...
    "//src/fonts/*",
    "//src/fonts/char_set/*",
    "//src/fonts/font_info/*",
    "//src/fonts/manifest/*",
    "//src/fonts/offset_string/*",
    "//src/fonts/tests/integration/*",
    "//src/fonts/tests/smoke/*",
    ...
  ]
}

Troubleshooting

Listing the contents of a package

Packages are described by a package manifest, which is a text file where every line follows this structure:

<packaged-path>=<source-file-path>

To find the package manifest for a fuchsia_package() or fuchsia_test_package() target, use the following command:

fx gn outputs out/default package target_manifest

The package target is a fully-qualified target name, i.e. in the form //path/to/your:target.

Combine this with another command to print the package manifest:

cat out/default/$(fx gn outputs out/default package target_manifest)

See also:

Finding paths for built executables

Executable programs can be built with various language-specific templates such as executable(), rustc_binary(), go_binary() etc'. These templates are responsible for specifying where in a package their output binaries should be included. The details vary by runtime and toolchain configuration.

  • Typically the path is bin/ followed by the target's name.
  • Typically if an output_name or name is specified, it overrides the target name.

Some rudimentary examples are given below:

C++

# Binary is packaged as `bin/rot13_encode`
executable("rot13_encode") {
  sources = [ "main.cc" ]
}

Rust

# Binary is packaged as `bin/rot13_encode`
rustc_binary("rot13_encode") {}

Go

# Binary is packaged as `bin/rot13_encode`
go_binary("rot13_encode") {}

In order to reference an executable in a component manifest, the author needs to know its packaged path.

One way to find the packaged path for an executable is to make sure that the target that builds the executable is in a package's deps, then follow listing the contents of a package. The executable is listed among the contents of the package.

Finding a component's launch URL

Component URLs follow this pattern:

fuchsia-pkg://fuchsia.com/<package-name>#meta/<component-name>.<extension>
  • <package-name>: specified as package_name on the package target, which defaults to the target name.
  • <component-name>: specified as component_name on the component target, which defaults to the target name.
  • <extension>: based on the component manifest ; cmx for CMX files, cm for CML files.

Legacy features

The following special attributes are supported by the legacy package() template:

  • binaries
  • drivers
  • libraries
  • loadable_modules

These are used with special syntax, which determines how the files that certain targets produce are packaged. For instance the libraries attribute installs resources in a special lib/ directory, drivers are installed in drivers/, etc'. The legacy syntax looks like this:

package("my_driver_package") {
  deps = [ ":my_driver" ]

  drivers = [
    {
      name = "my_driver.so"
    },
  ]
}

This special treatment is not necessary with the new templates. Simply add the necessary target to deps = [ ... ] and the packaging is done automatically.

fuchsia_component("my_driver_component") {
  deps = [ ":my_driver" ]
  ...
}

fuchsia_package("my_driver_package") {
  deps = [ ":my_driver_component" ]
  ...
}

Additionally, legacy package() supports the resources attribute. This is replaced by adding a dependency on a resource() target. For more details, see Provide data files to components.

Renaming files

The legacy package() template allowed developers to rename certain files that are included in their package. For example, below we see an executable being built and then renamed before its packaged so that its packaged under the path bin/foo_bin.

import("//build/package.gni")

executable("bin") {
  ...
}

package("foo_pkg") {
  deps = [ ":bin" ]
  binaries = [
    {
      name = "bin"
      dest = "foo_bin"
    }
  ]
  meta = [
    {
      path = "meta/foo_bin.cmx"
      dest = "foo.cmx"
    }
  ]
}

The new templates allow targets that produce files, such as executable() above, to decide which files they produce and where they're placed. This is important because some targets produce multiple files, or might produce different files based on the build configuration (for instance if building for a different target architecture). In order to control the paths of packaged files, developers should work with the templates for the targets that produce those files. For instance:

import("//build/components.gni")

executable("bin") {
  output_name = "foo_bin"
  ...
}

fuchsia_component("foo_cmp") {
  deps = [ ":bin" ]
  manifest = "meta/foo_bin.cmx"
}

fuchsia_package("foo_pkg") {
  deps = [ ":foo_cmp" ]
}

Shell binaries

The legacy package() template allowed developers to make a particular binary in the package available to fx shell.

import("//build/package.gni")

# `fx shell echo Hello World` prints "Hello World"
executable("bin") {
  output_name = "echo"
  ...
}

package("echo") {
  binaries = [
    {
      name = "echo"
      dest = "echo"
      shell = true
    }
  ]
  deps = [ ":bin" ]
}

The new templates support this feature as follows:

import("//build/components.gni")

# `fx shell echo Hello World` prints "Hello World"
executable("bin") {
  output_name = "echo"
  ...
}

fuchsia_shell_package("echo") {
  deps = [ ":bin" ]
}

Note that in the package() example the binary is explicitly named "echo", which is the same name that's used for its intrinsic name (output_name = "echo"). The new templates don't have this renaming behavior, and instead let the target that produces the binary (executable() in this case) decide the file name, as determined by the output_name specified (or the executable target's name if output_name isn't specified).

This feature was left out intentionally. Moving forward the use of legacy shell tools is discouraged.

Go grand_unified_binary

"Grand unified binary" (GUB) is a single binary that merges together multiple Go programs. The entry point to the combined program can identify which sub-program the caller intends to run based on the filename of the invocation (argv[0]). Therefore in order to include GUB in your package and invoke a sub-program the common practice is to rename the binary.

The legacy package() template allowed developers to accomplish this as shown below:

import("//build/go/go_library.gni")
import("//build/package.gni")

go_library("my_tool") {
  ...
}

package("tools") {
  deps = [
    "//src/go/grand_unified_binary",
  ]
  binaries = [
    {
      name = "my_tool"
      source = "grand_unified_binary"
    }
  ]
}

The new templates support this feature as follows:

import("//build/go/go_library.gni")
import("//src/go/grand_unified_binary/gub.gni")
import("//build/components.gni")

go_library("my_tool") {
  ...
}

grand_unified_binary("bin") {
  output_name = "my_tool"
}

fuchsia_package("tools") {
  deps = [ ":bin" ]
}

Legacy component index (aka fx run my_package)

The legacy package() template supported a short-form syntax for launching legacy v1 components in the legacy sys shell.

import("//build/package.gni")

executable("bin") {
  output_name = "echo"
  sources = [ "echo.cc" ]
}

package("echo") {
  deps = [ ":bin" ]
  binaries = [
    {
      name = "echo"
    },
  ]
  meta = [
    {
      path = "meta/echo.cmx"
      dest = "echo.cmx"
    },
  ]
}
fx run echo Hello World

This is also known as the Component Index.

The new templates don't support this feature out of the box, but you can use the full launch URL.

fx run fuchsia-pkg://fuchsia.com/echo#meta/echo.cmx Hello World

The plan is to deprecate the legacy shell and the legacy component index along with it, but there is currently no concrete timeline for this deprecation. If you'd like to keep the old behavior, you can do so with this special syntax:

import("//build/components.gni")
import("//src/sys/component_index/component_index.gni")

executable("bin") {
  output_name = "echo"
  sources = [ "echo.cc" ]
}

add_to_component_index("component_index") {
  package_name = "echo"
  manifest = "meta/echo.cmx"
}

fuchsia_package_with_single_component("echo") {
  deps = [
    ":bin",
    ":component_index",
  ]
  manifest = "meta/echo.cmx"
}

Other unsupported features

Note that some features of package() are unsupported moving forward. If your package depends on them then at this time it cannot be migrated to the new templates. These unsupported features include:

  • Marking a test as disabled. Instead, change the test source code to mark it as disabled, or comment out the disabled test component from the build file.
  • __deprecated_system_image: the legacy approach to including a package in the system image is not supported moving forward. A solution is being prepared and will be available later in 2021. Nearly all existing uses of this legacy feature are done via the driver_package() wrapper, which currently cannot be migrated.