SDK Standards

This document describes the standards for how we develop the Fuchsia SDK within the Platform Source Tree. Some of the information in this document might be of interest to clients of the Fuchsia SDK, but the primary focus of the document is how the Fuchsia project develops the SDK.

Governance

The contents of the Fuchsia SDK are governed by the Fuchsia API Council. The SDK does not contain libraries developed outside the Fuchsia project because those libraries are not subject to the governance of the Fuchsia API Council.

Client libraries in the SDK do not depend on libraries outside the SDK unless the external library has been approved by the Fuchsia API Council. Typically, the council will not approve a dependency unless the dependency has strict evolution criteria (e.g., the standard libraries for the various supported languages).

Example: Google Test

The Fuchsia SDK does not include the Google Test library because the governance for the Google Test library is provided by Google, not by the Fuchsia API Council.

The Fuchsia SDK does not depend on the Google Test library because the promises made by the governing body for the Google Test library are not compatible with the model used by the Fuchsia SDK.

Fuchsia System Interface

The Fuchsia System Interface is defined in Fuchsia System Interface. Generally speaking, the binary interface to the system is only the FIDL wireformat used by programs to communicate with the system and the syscalls exposed in libzircon.

FIDL Protocol Definitions

Binary stability

FIDL protocols are defined in .fidl files, which are contained in the SDK. All the FIDL definitions that have been published in an SDK should be considered public ABI for the system. The system might also contain additional FIDL definitions that have not been published in an SDK. Those definitions are subject to change without notice and programs that rely upon their ABI might not work properly in future versions of the system.

Source stability

FIDL definitions in the SDK might evolve in source-incompatible ways. For example, we might rename a method in a protocol while maintaining its ordinal and semantics (the ordinal can be maintained by adding a Selector attribute that is set to the original name). Such a change preserves the ABI but breaks source compatibility.

We do not currently have any standards about when we should break source compatibility.

Naming

Public FIDL definitions are located in the source tree under //sdk/fidl/$LIBRARY_NAME. The target name should be the name of the library.

Style

FIDL definitions in the SDK should follow the FIDL API style rubric.

Client Libraries

The Fuchsia SDK contains a number of "client libraries" (libraries that clients of the SDK can link into their programs). All of these client libraries are optional and provided for the convenience of clients, not for the convenience of the system. The system must not rely upon programs using any specific client libraries. Note that libc is a client library (not a system library).

Stability and Packaging

Only the Fuchsia System Interface is ABI stable. Client libraries are neither API nor ABI stable. Binaries and libraries must be built against the same SDK version as the client libraries they are linked with.

All libraries a program links beyond the Fuchsia System Interface, including client libraries, must be included inside the program's package. Dynamic libraries should be placed in the lib directory of the program's package.

Packages are the unit of software mobility, delivery, and linkage. Different packages can contain different versions of the same library. When running a program, the system provides that program the libraries from its own package, preventing the different libraries used by different packages from conflicting in the same program.

Precompiled libraries

The Fuchsia SDK does not require clients to use a specific toolchain. For this reason, precompiled client libraries must have C linkage. For example, a precompiled client library cannot export C++ symbols because C++ does not have a standard ABI across toolchains (or even toolchain versions).

Dependencies

A client that takes a dependency on a client library must also take a dependency on all the dependencies of that library. For this reason, client libraries should have minimal dependencies. For example, client libraries should avoid dependencies on FBL, FXL, FSL, or other "base" libraries that are not in the SDK.

Client libraries that need to perform asynchronous operations should depend on libasync.a and libasync-default.so. However, these libraries should not assume the client is using any specific implementation of async_dispatcher_t*. For example, these libraries should not assume the async_dispatcher_t* is actually implemented by libasync-loop.a. Libraries that require async_get_default_dispatcher to be populated should state this requirement in their documentation.

Precompiled libraries can have more extensive dependencies if those dependencies are hidden from their client. For example, a precompiled shared library should not export symbols from these dependencies and should not have headers that transitively include headers from these dependencies.

Naming

Client libraries should be named according to the language they expect their clients to use. For example, the C++ variant of the $NAME library should be located in the source tree under //sdk/lib/$NAME/cpp. The C variant should simply be under //sdk/lib/$NAME.

Style

Client libraries should follow the Fuchsia style guide for the language in which they are written.

Logging

Client libraries should avoid logging messages. Instead, client libraries should return errors to their clients, who can decide whether to log the error.

Assertions

C and C++ client libraries should use ZX_DEBUG_ASSERT and ZX_ASSERT, defined in <zircon/assert.h>, to assert invariants. Client libraries may also use the _MSG variants to provide a message when the assertion fails.

Recommendations for client code

C

The Fuchsia System Interface uses symbols with the zx_ and fuchsia_ prefixes and preprocessor macros with the ZX_ and FUCHSIA_ prefixes. To avoid collisions, these prefixes are reserved for use by the Fuchsia SDK. Clients of the Fuchsia SDK should not declare symbols or preprocessor macros with these prefixes.

C++

The FIDL protocols included in the Fuchsia System Interface resides in the top-level fuchsia namespace. To avoid collisions, this namespace is reserved for use by the Fuchsia SDK. Clients of the Fuchsia SDK should not declare names in the top-level fuchsia namespace.