Encoding structured records

Fuchsia is in the process of migrating to a wire format for structured logs inspired by its trace format. This new transmission format for logs allows consumption and propagation of arbitrary data structures as log records.

Validation

The size of a log record is capped at 32kb.

Writers that send oversize or invalid records to the diagnostics service will have their streams closed and an error recorded by the diagnostics service.

Primitives

Integers have little endian encoding. Signed integers are twos-complement.

Timestamps are signed 64-bit integers measured in nanoseconds, as recorded by zx_clock_get_monotonic.

Strings are denoted by a 16-bit "string ref". If the most significant bit (MSB) is 0, the string is empty. If the MSB is 1, the remaining bits of the ref indicate the length of the subsequent UTF-8 byte stream. All string refs with an MSB of 0 other than the empty string are reserved for future extensions. Strings are padded with zeroes until 8-byte aligned.

Records consist of a number of 8-byte words and are 8-byte aligned.

Records

Implementors are encouraged to use FIDL bindings from [/sdk/fidl/fuchsia.diagnostics.stream/record.fidl] as the "reference" API for records when testing their encoder. These types allow for cross-validating interoperability of log readers and writers.

The required metadata for a log record are a record type, the overall length of the record, and a timestamp. These are encoded in the first 16 bytes of a record:

.---------------------------------------------------------------.
|         |1|1|1|1|1|2|2|2|2|2|3|3|3|3|3|4|4|4|4|4|5|5|5|5|5|6|6|
|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|
|---+-----------+-----------------------------------------------|
| T | SizeWords | Reserved                            | Severity|
|---------------------------------------------------------------|
| TimestampNanos                                                |
'---------------------------------------------------------------'

T (type)       = {0,3}    must be 9
SizeWords      = {4,15}   includes header word
Reserved       = {16,55}  must be 0
Severity       = {56,63}  severity of the log record
TimestampNanos = {64,127}

Currently all records are expected to have type=9. This was chosen to mirror the trace format but may require a change before these records can be processed by tracing tools. Values for severity are defined in [/sdk/fidl/fuchsia.diagnostics.stream/source.fidl]

Arguments

Log record data is conveyed via a list of typed key-value pairs. The keys are always non-empty strings (except in the case of printf), which supports different types of arguments, and the values can have several types.

Argument header

Each argument has an 8-byte header, followed by the argument name, followed by the argument's value. The name is padded with zeroes to 8-byte alignment before the argument's content is written.

.---------------------------------------------------------------.
|         |1|1|1|1|1|2|2|2|2|2|3|3|3|3|3|4|4|4|4|4|5|5|5|5|5|6|6|
|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|
|---+-----------+-----------------------------------------------|
| T | SizeWords | NameRef     | Varies                          |
|---------------------------------------------------------------|
| Name (1+ words)                                               |
'---------------------------------------------------------------'

T (type)  = {0,3}           see table below
SizeWords = {4,15}          includes header word
NameRef   = {16,31}         string ref for the argument name
Varies    = {32,63}         varies by argument type, must be 0 if unused
NameLen   = 64*NameRef
Name      = {64,64+NameLen} name of the argument, padded to 8-byte alignment

The first 4 bits of the argument header determine which type the argument has:

T (type) name
3 signed 64-bit integers
4 unsigned 64-bit integers
5 double-precision floats
6 UTF-8 strings

Signed 64-bit integer arguments

Signed integers are appended after the argument name is terminated.

.---------------------------------------------------------------.
|         |1|1|1|1|1|2|2|2|2|2|3|3|3|3|3|4|4|4|4|4|5|5|5|5|5|6|6|
|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|
|---+-----------+-----------------------------------------------|
| 3 | SizeWords | NameRef     | Reserved                        |
|---------------------------------------------------------------|
| Name (1+ words)                                               |
'---------------------------------------------------------------'
| Value                                                         |
'---------------------------------------------------------------'

T (type)  = {0,3}                  must be 3
SizeWords = {4,15}                 includes header word
NameRef   = {16,31}                string ref for the argument name
Reserved  = {32,63}                must be 0
NameEnd   = 64+(64*NameRef)
Name      = {64,NameEnd}           name of the argument, padded to 8-byte alignment
Value     = {NameEnd+1,SizeWords*64}

Unsigned 64-bit integer arguments

Unsigned integers are appended after the argument name is terminated.

.---------------------------------------------------------------.
|         |1|1|1|1|1|2|2|2|2|2|3|3|3|3|3|4|4|4|4|4|5|5|5|5|5|6|6|
|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|
|---+-----------+-----------------------------------------------|
| 4 | SizeWords | NameRef     | Reserved                        |
|---------------------------------------------------------------|
| Name (1+ words)                                               |
'---------------------------------------------------------------'
| Value                                                         |
'---------------------------------------------------------------'

T (type)  = {0,3}                  must be 4
SizeWords = {4,15}                 includes header word
NameRef   = {16,31}                string ref for the argument name
Reserved  = {32,63}                must be 0
NameEnd   = 64+(64*NameRef)
Name      = {64,NameEnd}           name of the argument, padded to 8-byte alignment
Value     = {NameEnd+1,SizeWords*64}

64-bit floating point arguments

Floats are appended after the argument name is terminated.

.---------------------------------------------------------------.
|         |1|1|1|1|1|2|2|2|2|2|3|3|3|3|3|4|4|4|4|4|5|5|5|5|5|6|6|
|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|
|---+-----------+-----------------------------------------------|
| 5 | SizeWords | NameRef     | Reserved                        |
|---------------------------------------------------------------|
| Name (1+ words)                                               |
'---------------------------------------------------------------'
| Value                                                         |
'---------------------------------------------------------------'

T (type)  = {0,3}                  must be 5
SizeWords = {4,15}                 includes header word
NameRef   = {16,31}                string ref for the argument name
Reserved  = {32,63}                must be 0
NameEnd   = 64+(64*NameRef)
Name      = {64,NameEnd}           name of the argument, padded to 8-byte alignment
Value     = {NameEnd+1,SizeWords*64}

String arguments

Strings are encoded in UTF-8, padded with zeroes until 8-byte aligned, and appended after the argument name.

.---------------------------------------------------------------.
|         |1|1|1|1|1|2|2|2|2|2|3|3|3|3|3|4|4|4|4|4|5|5|5|5|5|6|6|
|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|4|6|8|0|2|
|---+-----------+-----------------------------------------------|
| 6 | SizeWords | NameRef     | ValueRef      | Reserved        |
|---------------------------------------------------------------|
| Name (1+ words)                                               |
'---------------------------------------------------------------'
| Value (1+ words)                                              |
'---------------------------------------------------------------'

T (type)  = {0,3}                  must be 6
SizeWords = {4,15}                 includes header word
NameRef   = {16,31}                string ref for the argument name
ValueRef  = {32,47}                string ref for the argument value
Reserved  = {48,63}                must be 0
NameEnd   = 64+(64*NameRef)
Name      = {64,NameEnd}           name of the argument, padded to 8-byte alignment
Value     = {NameEnd+1,SizeWords*64}

Structured printf

Structured print-format (printf) sends format strings and arguments directly as key-value pairs. The structured printf format string acts as if it were a printf format string, and readers should interpret it as such.

Marking a message as printf

Structured printf messages are denoted by a single key called "printf" at the start of a log message, followed by a u64 value of 0. This must be the first key/value pair in a message, or it will not be interpreted as a printf message (and will instead be a regular key/value pair). If a second printf key is encoded in the message, it will be interpreted as a key-value pair with key "printf" and the standard rules apply to such fields.

Encoding printf args

Printf args consist of key-value pairs with an empty key followed by a value whose type must match that which was specified in the format string. Printf values must come before other user-defined key-value pairs in a message. Key-value pairs consisting of empty strings that come after a user-defined key-value-pair will be treated as a normal key-value pair. Programs which format printf messages should print key-value pairs after the message string, unless specified otherwise in the format message.

Encoding "legacy" format messages

Components that call LogSink.Connect are expected to pass a socket in "datagram" mode (as opposed to "streaming") and to write the "legacy" wire format into the it. This uses little endian integers and a mix of length-prefixed and null-terminated UTF-8 strings.