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Write a message to a channel.


#include <zircon/syscalls.h>

zx_status_t zx_channel_write_etc(zx_handle_t handle,
                                 uint32_t options,
                                 const void* bytes,
                                 uint32_t num_bytes,
                                 zx_handle_disposition_t* handles,
                                 uint32_t num_handles);


Like zx_channel_write() it attempts to write a message of num_bytes bytes and num_handles handles to the channel specified by handle, but in addition it will perform operations for the handles that are being transferred with handles being an array of zx_handle_disposition_t:

typedef struct zx_handle_disposition {
    zx_handle_op_t operation;
    zx_handle_t handle;
    zx_rights_t rights;
    zx_obj_type_t type;
    zx_status_t result;
} zx_handle_disposition_t;

In zx_handle_disposition_t, handle is the source handle to be operated on, rights is the desired final rights (not a mask) and result must be set to ZX_OK. All source handles must have ZX_RIGHT_TRANSFER, but it it can be removed in rights so that it is not available to the message receiver.

type is used to perform validation of the object type that the caller expects handle to be. It can be ZX_OBJ_TYPE_NONE to skip validation checks or one of zx_obj_type_t defined types.

The operation applied to handle is one of:

handle will be transferred with capability rights which can be ZX_RIGHT_SAME_RIGHTS or a reduced set of rights, or ZX_RIGHT_NONE. In addition, this operation allows removing ZX_RIGHT_TRANSFER in rights so that capability is not available for the receiver.

If any operation fails, the error code for that source handle is written to result, and the first failure is made available in the return value for zx_channel_write_etc(). All operations in the handles array are attempted, even if one or more operations fail.

All operations for each entry must succeed for the message to be written. On success, handles are attached to the message and will become available to the reader of that message from the opposite end of the channel.

It is invalid to include handle (the handle of the channel being written to) in the handles array (the handles being sent in the message).

The maximum number of handles which may be sent in a message is ZX_CHANNEL_MAX_MSG_HANDLES, which is 64.

The maximum number of bytes which may be sent in a message is ZX_CHANNEL_MAX_MSG_BYTES, which is 65536.

Messages are drained by zx_channel_read() or zx_channel_read_etc(). Failure to drain the messages in a timely fashion can cause excessive kernel memory to be used which might generate an exception. See ipc limits for details.


When the ZX_CHANNEL_WRITE_USE_IOVEC option is specified, bytes is interpreted as an array of zx_channel_iovec_t, specifying slices of bytes to sequentially copy to the message in order. num_bytes specifies the number of zx_channel_iovec_t array elements in bytes.

typedef struct zx_channel_iovec {
  const void* buffer;      // User-space bytes.
  uint32_t capacity;       // Number of bytes.
  uint32_t reserved;       // Reserved.
} zx_channel_iovec_t;

There can be at most ZX_CHANNEL_MAX_MSG_IOVEC or 8192 zx_channel_iovec_t elements of the bytes array with the sum of capacity across all zx_channel_iovec_t not exceeding ZX_CHANNEL_MAX_MSG_BYTES or 65536 bytes. buffer need not be aligned and it may only be NULL if capacity is zero. reserved must be set to zero.

Either all zx_channel_iovec_t are copied and the message is sent, or none are copied and the message is not sent. Usage for sending handles is unchanged.


handle must be of type ZX_OBJ_TYPE_CHANNEL and have ZX_RIGHT_WRITE.

Every entry of handles must have ZX_RIGHT_TRANSFER.


zx_channel_write_etc() returns ZX_OK on success.


ZX_ERR_BAD_HANDLE handle is not a valid handle, any source handle in handles is not a valid handle, or there are repeated handles in the handles array if ZX_HANDLE_OP_DUPLICATE flags is not present.

ZX_ERR_WRONG_TYPE handle is not a channel handle, or any source handle in handles did not match the object type type.

ZX_ERR_INVALID_ARGS bytes is an invalid pointer, handles is an invalid pointer, or options is nonzero, or operation is not one of ZX_HANDLE_OP_MOVE or ZX_HANDLE_OP_DUPLICATE, or any source handle in handles[i]->handle did not have the rights specified in whandle[i]->rights. If the ZX_CHANNEL_WRITE_USE_IOVEC option is specified, ZX_ERR_INVALID_ARGS will be produced if the buffer field contains an invalid pointer or if the reserved field is non-zero.

ZX_ERR_NOT_SUPPORTED handle is included in the handles array.

ZX_ERR_ACCESS_DENIED handle does not have ZX_RIGHT_WRITE or any source handle in handles does not have ZX_RIGHT_TRANSFER, or any source handle in handles does not have ZX_RIGHT_DUPLICATE when ZX_HANDLE_OP_DUPLICATE operation is specified.

ZX_ERR_PEER_CLOSED The other side of the channel is closed.

ZX_ERR_NO_MEMORY Failure due to lack of memory. There is no good way for userspace to handle this (unlikely) error. In a future build this error will no longer occur.

ZX_ERR_OUT_OF_RANGE num_bytes or num_handles are larger than ZX_CHANNEL_MAX_MSG_BYTES or ZX_CHANNEL_MAX_MSG_HANDLES respectively. If the ZX_CHANNEL_WRITE_USE_IOVEC option is specified, ZX_ERR_OUT_OF_RANGE will be produced if num_bytes is larger than ZX_CHANNEL_MAX_MSG_IOVEC or the sum of the iovec capacities exceeds ZX_CHANNEL_MAX_MSG_BYTES.


If the caller removes the ZX_RIGHT_TRANSFER to a handle attached to a message, the reader of the message will receive a handle that cannot be written to any other channel, but still can be using according to its rights and can be closed if not needed.