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Set up Fuchsia's native debugger (zxdb)

Overview

The debugger is for C, C++, and Rust code running on Fuchsia for either 64-bit ARM or 64-bit x86 architectures.

This is the very detailed setup guide. Please see:

The debugger runs remotely only (you can't do self-hosted debug).

Binary location (for SDK users)

The binary is tools/zxdb in the Fuchsia SDK. SDK users will have to do an extra step to set up your symbols. See "Running out-of-tree" below for more.

Compiling (for Fuchsia team members)

A Fuchsia "core" build includes (as of this writing) the necessary targets for the debugger. So this build configuration is sufficient:

fx --dir=out/x64 set core.x64

If you're compiling with another product, you may not get it by default. If you don't have the debugger in your build, add //bundles:tools to your "universe", either with:

fx <normal_stuff_you_use> --with //bundles:tools

Or you can edit your GN args directly by editing <build_dir>/args.gn and adding to the bottom:

universe_package_labels += [ "//bundles:tools" ]

Running

Preparation: Boot with networking

Boot the target system with networking support:

  • Hardware devices: use the device instructions.
  • AEMU: fx emu -N
  • QEMU: fx qemu -N

(If using x64 with an emulator on a Linux host, we also recommend the "-k" flag which will make it run faster).

To manually validate network connectivity run fx shell or fx get-device-addr.

Simple method

You can use the fx utility to start the debug agent and connect automatically.

For most build configurations, the debug agent will be in the "universe" (i.e. "available to use") but not in the base build so won't be on the system before boot. You will need to run:

fx serve

to make the debug agent's package available for serving to the system. Otherwise you will get the message "Timed out trying to find the Debug Agent".

Once the server is running, launch the debugger in another terminal window:

fx debug

To manually validate packages can be loaded, run "ls" from within the Fuchsia shell (for most setups this requires "fx serve" to be successfully serving packages).

Manual method

In some cases you may want to run the debug agent and connect manually. To do so, follow these steps:

1. Run the debug agent on the target

On the target system pick a port and run the debug agent:

run fuchsia-pkg://fuchsia.com/debug_agent#meta/debug_agent.cmx --port=2345

If you get an error "Cannot create child process: ... failed to resolve ..." it means the debug agent can't be loaded. You may need to run fx serve or its equivalent in your environment to make it available.

You will want to note the target's IP address. Run ifconfig on the target to see this, or run fx get-device-addr on the host.

2. Run the client and connect

On the host system (where you do the build), run the client. Use the IP address of the target and the port you picked above in the connect command. If running in-tree, fx get-device-addr will tell you this address.

For QEMU, we recommend using IPv6 and link local addresses. These addresses have to be annotated with the interface they apply to, so make sure the address you use includes the appropriate interface (should be the name of the bridge device).

The address should look like fe80::5054:ff:fe63:5e7a%br0

fx zxdb

or

out/<out_dir>/host_x64/zxdb

[zxdb] connect [fe80::5054:ff:fe63:5e7a%br0]:2345

(Substitute your build directory as-needed).

If you're connecting or running many times, there are command-line switches:

zxdb -c [fe80::5054:ff:fe63:5e7a%br0]:2345
  • The status command will give you a summary of the current state of the debugger.

  • See help connect for more examples, including IPv6 syntax.

Read the user guide

Once you're connected, the user guide has detailed instructions!

Tips

Running out-of-tree

You can run with kernels or user programs compiled elsewhere with some extra steps. We hope this will become easier over time.

Be aware that we aren't yet treating the protocol as frozen. Ideally the debugger will be from the same build as the operating system itself (more precisely, it needs to match the debug_agent). But the protocol does not change very often so there is some flexibility.

When you run out-of-tree, you will need to tell zxdb where your symbols and source code are on the local development box (Linux or Mac). Zxdb can not use symbols in the binary that you pushed to the Fuchsia target device.

See Diagnosing symbol problems.

Set the symbol location

There are three command-line flags to control the symbol lookup locations for zxdb: --build-id-dir, --ids-txt, and a general --symbol-path. They all have the corresponding settings that can be manipulated using set or get.

For example, to add a ".build-id" directory, either use --build-id-dir flag:

zxdb --build-id-dir some/other_location/.build-id

Or add it to the build-id-dirs list option in the interactive UI:

[zxdb] set build-id-dirs += some/other_location/.build-id

For in-tree development, fx debug automatically sets up all necessary flags.

build-id-dir

Some builds produce a .build-id directory. Symbol files in it are already indexed according to their build IDs. For example, the Fuchsia build itself makes a .build-id directory inside the build directory, e.g., out/x64/.build-id. They can be added to zxdb by --build-id-dir command-line flag or build-id-dirs setting. This is the best option.

ids-txt

Instead of a .build-id directory, some builds produce a file called ids.txt that lists build IDs and local paths to the corresponding binaries. They can be added to zxdb by --ids-txt command-line flag or ids-txts setting. This is the second-best option.

symbol-path

In addition, --symbol-path flag can be used to add arbitrary files or directories to symbol index. If the path is pointing to a file, it will be treated as an ELF file and added to the symbol index. If it's a directory, all binaries under the given path are indexed.

Set the source code location

The Fuchsia build generates symbols relative to the build directory so relative paths look like ../../src/my_component/file.cc).

If your files are not being found with the default build directories, you will need to provide a build directory to locate the files. This build directory does not need have been used to build, it just needs to produce correct absolute paths when concatenated with the relative paths from the symbol file.

You can add additional build directories on the command line:

zxdb -b /home/me/fuchsia/out/x64

Or interactively from within the debugger:

[zxdb] set build-dirs += /home/me/fuchsia/out/x64

If debugger is finding the wrong file, you can replace the entire build directory list by omitting the +=:

[zxdb] set build-dirs /home/me/fuchsia/out/x64

If your build produces DWARF symbols with absolute file paths the files must be in that location on the local system. Absolute file paths in the symbols are not affected by the build search path. Clang users should use the -fdebug-prefix-map which will also help with build hermeticity.

Diagnosing symbol problems

Variable values are unavailable

Usually this is related to the optimization level of the program:

Optimized out Indicates that the program symbols declare a variable with the given name, but that it has no value or location. This means the compiler has entirely optimized out the variable and the debugger can not show it. If you need to see it, use a less-optimized build setting.

Unavailable indicates that the variable is not valid at the current address, but that its value is known at other addresses. In optimized code, the compiler will often re-use registers, clobbering previous values which become unavailable.

You can see the valid ranges for a variable with the "sym-info" command:

[zxdb] sym-info my_variable
Variable: my_variable
  Type: int
  DWARF tag: 0x05
  DWARF location (address range + DWARF expression bytes):
    [0x3e0d0a3e05b, 0x3e0d0a3e0b2): 0x70 0x88 0x78
    [0x3e0d0a3e0b2, 0x3e0d0a3eb11): 0x76 0x48 0x10 0xf8 0x07 0x1c 0x06

Under "DWARF location" it will give a list of address ranges where the value of the variable is known (inclusive at the beginning of the range, non-inclusive at the end). Run to one of these addresses to see the value of the variable (use "di" to see the current address).

You can ignore the "DWARF expression bytes" which are the internal instructions for finding the variable.

Can't find symbols

The sym-stat command will tell you status for symbols. With no running process, it will give information on the different symbol locations you have specified. If your symbols aren't found, make sure this matches your expectations:

[zxdb] sym-stat
Symbol index status

  Indexed  Source path
 (folder)  /home/me/.build-id
 (folder)  /home/me/build/out/x64
        0  my_dir/my_file

If you see "0" in the "Indexed" column of the "Symbol index status" that means that the debugger could not find where your symbols are. Try the -s flag (see "Running out-of-tree" above) to specify where your symbols are.

Symbol sources using the ".build-id" hierarchy will list "(folder)" for the indexed symbols since this type of source does not need to be indexed. To check if your hierarchy includes a given build ID, go to ".build-id" inside it, then to the folder with the first to characters of the build ID to see if there is a matching file.

When you have a running program, sym-stat will additionally print symbol information for each binary loaded into the process. If you're not getting symbols, find the entry for the binary or shared library in this list. If it says:

    Symbols loaded: No

then that means it couldn't find the symbolized binary on the local computer for the given build ID in any of the locations listed in "Symbol index status". You may need to add a new location with -s.

If instead it says something like this:

    Symbols loaded: Yes
    Symbol file: /home/foo/bar/...
    Source files indexed: 1
    Symbols indexed: 0

where "Source files indexed" and "Symbols indexed" is 0 or a very low integer, that means that the debugger found a symbolized file but there are few or no symbols in it. Normally this means the binary was not built with symbols enabled or the symbols were stripped. Check your build, you should be passing the path to the unstripped binary and the original compile line should have a -g in it to get symbols.

Mismatched source lines

Sometimes the source file listings may not match the code. The most common reason is that the build is out-of-date and no longer matches the source. The debugger will check that the symbol file modification time is newer than the source file, but it will only print the warning the first time the file is displayed. Check for this warning if you suspect a problem.

Some people have multiple checkouts. If it's finding a file in the wrong one, override the build-dirs option as described above in Set the source code location.

To display the file name of the file it found from list, use the -f option:

[zxdb] list -f
/home/me/fuchsia/out/x64/../../src/foo/bar.cc
 ... <source code> ...

You can also set the show-file-paths option. This will increase file path information:

  • It will show the full resolved path in source listings as in list -f.
  • It will show the full path instead of just the file name in other places such as backtraces.
[zxdb] set show-file-paths true

You may notice a mismatch when setting a breakpoint on a specific line where the displayed breakpoint location doesn't match the line number you typed. In most cases, this is because this symbols did not identify any code on the specified line so the debugger used the next line. It can happen even in unoptimized builds, and is most common for variable declarations.

[zxdb] b file.cc:138
Breakpoint 1 (Software) @ file.cc:138
   138   int my_value = 0;          <- Breakpoint was requested here.
 ◉ 139   DoSomething(&my_value);    <- But ended up here.
   140   if (my_value > 0) {

Debugging the debugger and running the tests

Client

For developers working on the debugger, you can activate the --debug-mode flag that will activate many logging statements for the debugger:

zxdb --debug-mode

You can also debug the client on GDB or LLDB on your host machine.

  • Use the unstripped binary in host_x64/exe.unstripped to get symbols.
  • The Fuchsia build generates symbols relative to your build directory (out/x64 or similar), so you must run GDB/LLDB with that as the current directory.
  • Launching zxdb from the debugger with the right flags to connect can be tricky. To debug initialization, copy the command-line from "ps". Otherwise, it's easiest to attach after starting the debugger in the normal fashion.
cd out/x64    # Substitute your build directory as needed.
sudo gdb host_x64/exe.unstripped/zxdb
... GDB startup messages ...
(gdb) attach 12345    # Use the PID of the zxdb already running.
... the program will be stopped when GDB attaches ...
(gdb) continue

There are tests for the debugger that run on the host. These are relevant if you're working on the debugger client.

cd out/x64    # Substitute your build directory as needed.
host_x64/zxdb_tests

To run the unit tests in the debugger:

cd out/x64
cp host_x64/exe.unstripped/zxdb_tests host_x64/
gdb host_x64/zxdb_tests

Most tests can be debugged by omitting the copy step and debugging the symbolized file in exe_unstripped directly, but some tests require data files at a certain place relative to the test binary and these will fail.

Debug Agent

Similar as with the client, the debug agent is programmed to log many debug statements when run with the --debug-mode flag:

run fuchsia-pkg://fuchsia.com/debug_agent#meta/debug_agent.cmx --debug-mode

It is also possible to attach the debugger to the debugger. The preferred way to do this is to make zxdb catch the debugger on launch using the filtering feature. This is done frequently by the debugger team. See the user guide for more details:

// Run the debugger that will attach to the "to-be-debugged" debug agent.
fx debug

// * Within zxdb.
[zxdb] attach debug_agent

// Launch another debug agent manually
// * Within the target (requires another port).
run fuchsia-pkg://fuchsia.com/debug_agent#meta/debug_agent.cmx --port=5000 --debug-mode

// * Within the first zxdb:
Attached Process 1 [Running] koid=12345 debug_agent.cmx
  The process is currently in an initializing state. You can set pending
  breakpoints (symbols haven't been loaded yet) and "continue".
[zxdb] continue

// Now there is a running debug agent that is attached by the first zxdb run.
// You can also attach to it using another client (notice the port):
fx zxdb --connect [<IPv6 to target>]:5000 --debug-mode

// Now you have two running instances of the debugger!

To run the debug agent tests:

fx test debug_agent_tests

Bugs

To report a new zxdb bug, see Report a new zxdb bug.

Other Languages

C, C++, and Rust are supported. Go is not supported but may work to some degree if you compile with DWARF symbols (please file bugs if you try). Dart and JavaScript will not work because they're interpreted languages that do not generate compiled code with DWARF symbols.