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Life of a Fuchsia syscall

Overview

When a syscall is invoked by an application, execution passes through several stages. In order to reduce boilerplate code, syscall-specific logic is generated with the kazoo tool. Before diving into how each of the above stages works, it is best to understand how this code is generated.

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Code generation with kazoo

Fuchsia syscalls are declared in FIDL files in //zircon/vdso.

Example declaration of zx_channel_create:

library zx;

[Transport = "Syscall"]
protocol channel {
  channel_create(uint32 options) -> (status status, handle out0, handle out1);
}

When the kernel is built, fidlc (the FIDL front-end) takes these FIDL files and generates FIDL Intermediate Representation (IR) JSON files. The IR file is generated at //out/default/gen/zircon/vdso/zx.fidl.json.

Kazoo reads this IR file, and generates source files that invoke C++ macros with the inputs and outputs of each syscall. These macros are defined per-architecture to allow Kazoo to output architecture-agnostic source.

Example Kazoo output:

KERNEL_SYSCALL(channel_create, zx_status_t, /* no attributes */, 3,
    (options, out0, out1), (
    uint32_t options,
    _ZX_SYSCALL_ANNO(acquire_handle("Fuchsia")) user_out_handle* out0,
    _ZX_SYSCALL_ANNO(acquire_handle("Fuchsia")) user_out_handle* out1))

Example x86 implementation:

#define KERNEL_SYSCALL(name, type, attrs, nargs, arglist, prototype) \
  m_syscall zx_##name, ZX_SYS_##name, nargs, 1

.macro m_syscall name, num, nargs, public
syscall_entry_begin \name
    .cfi_same_value %r12
    .cfi_same_value %r13
.if \nargs <= 3
    zircon_syscall \num, \name, \name
    ret
.endif

.macro zircon_syscall num, name, caller
    mov $\num, %eax
    syscall
// This symbol at the return address identifies this as an approved call site.
    .hidden CODE_SYSRET_\name\()_VIA_\caller
CODE_SYSRET_\name\()_VIA_\caller\():
.endm

This pattern of interfacing kazoo-generated source with C++ macros and assembly routines is found throughout the syscall stages.

Program

In order to use a syscall, you should include the <zircon/syscalls.h> header from the Fuchsia SDK, which is generated by kazoo. While the header is available to the program during compilation, the implementation is only available during runtime inside the vDSO.

vDSO

The virtual Dynamic Shared Object (vDSO) is an ELF file containing the user-space implementation of each syscall. The assembly routines in the vDSO are mostly generated by Kazoo, but all have this same structure:

  1. Save user-provided arguments to architecture-specific registers
  2. Store the syscall number to an architecture-specific register (%eax for x86)
  3. Switch context to the kernel (syscall for x86)

The routines in the vDSO can be viewed with:

$ objdump -d `find out/default.zircon -name libzircon.so.debug` | less

x86 implementation of zx_channel_create:

0000000000007a70 <_zx_channel_create>:
    7a70:       b8 03 00 00 00          mov    $0x3,%eax
    7a75:       0f 05                   syscall

0000000000007a77 <CODE_SYSRET_zx_channel_create_VIA_zx_channel_create>:
    7a77:       c3                      retq

When the kernel is built, the vDSO is linked as a char array in the kernel, and then loaded into a vmo. During boot-up, some constants are written into the vDSO to allow user-space programs to query these constants without doing a hop to the kernel.

Before your program's entrypoint is called, ld.so maps the vDSO into memory. To prevent return-to-libc attacks, the vDSO is placed at a random location in the process' address space, and the base address is provided to the first thread in a specific register.

The vDSO is dynamically linked to the user's program in the entrypoint provided by libc

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Syscall handler

In order to receive the syscall in privileged mode, the kernel registers the syscall handler at startup. When this routine is called, the syscall number is used to index into a map of dispatch routines.

x86 implementation: //zircon/kernel/arch/x86

write_msr(X86_MSR_IA32_LSTAR, (uint64_t)&x86_syscall);

FUNCTION_LABEL(x86_syscall)
  leaq    .Lcall_wrapper_table(%rip), %r11
  movq    (%r11,%rax,8), %r11
  jmp     *%r11
END_FUNCTION(x86_syscall)

The dispatch routines are responsible for moving the syscall args to appropriate registers to be picked up as C function arguments, and calling the wrapper function. The routines are generated at build-time using the syscall_dispatch macro and a Kazoo-generated source file.

#define KERNEL_SYSCALL(name, type, attrs, nargs, arglist, prototype) \
  syscall_dispatch nargs, name

KERNEL_SYSCALL(channel_create, zx_status_t, /* no attributes */, 3,
    (options, out0, out1), (
    uint32_t options,
    _ZX_SYSCALL_ANNO(acquire_handle("Fuchsia")) user_out_handle* out0,
    _ZX_SYSCALL_ANNO(acquire_handle("Fuchsia")) user_out_handle* out1))

.macro syscall_dispatch nargs, syscall
  LOCAL_FUNCTION(.Lcall_\syscall\())
    // move args around
    pre_\nargs\()_args
    // calls wrapper
    call wrapper_\syscall
    // cleans up
    post_\nargs\()_args
  END_FUNCTION(.Lcall_\syscall\())
.endm

Syscall wrapper

The syscall wrapper functions are generated by Kazoo, and are responsible for calling the syscall implementation, then copying any handles back to the client. These wrappers have the naming convention wrapper_<syscall>.

syscall_result wrapper_channel_create(uint32_t options, zx_handle_t* out0, zx_handle_t* out1, uint64_t pc) {
    return do_syscall(ZX_SYS_channel_create, pc, &VDso::ValidSyscallPC::channel_create, [&](ProcessDispatcher* current_process) -> uint64_t {
        user_out_handle out_handle_out0;
        user_out_handle out_handle_out1;
        auto result = sys_channel_create(options, &out_handle_out0, &out_handle_out1);
        if (result != ZX_OK)
            return result;
        if (out_handle_out0.begin_copyout(current_process, make_user_out_ptr(out0)))
            return ZX_ERR_INVALID_ARGS;
        if (out_handle_out1.begin_copyout(current_process, make_user_out_ptr(out1)))
            return ZX_ERR_INVALID_ARGS;
        out_handle_out0.finish_copyout(current_process);
        out_handle_out1.finish_copyout(current_process);
        return result;
    });
}

Syscall implementation

The syscall implementation is a hand-written function with the naming convention sys_<syscall>. These functions contain the core logic of the syscall, and are architecture-agnostic.

//zircon/kernel/lib/syscalls/channel.cc

zx_status_t sys_channel_create(...) {
   ...
}

Appendix

Example commit for creating a new syscall.