Security and privacy are woven deeply into the architecture of Fuchsia. The basic building blocks of Fuchsia, the kernel primitives, are exposed to applications as object-capabilities. This means that applications running on Fuchsia have no ambient authority: applications can interact only with the objects to which they have been granted access explicitly.
Software is delivered in hermetic packages and everything is sandboxed. All software that runs on the system, including applications and system components, receives the least privilege it needs to perform its job and gains access only to the information it needs to know. Because capabilities routing and software isolation are enforced by the operating system, developers don’t have to build an additional system for security.
Fuchsia builds on a kernel designed to securely isolate software
Zircon is a capability-based, object-oriented kernel
The Zircon system fully isolates processes by default, and must explicitly grant capabilities and resources. Fuchsia passes capabilities and resources by handles rather than name, which leads to a system that only grants software access to what it needs.
Components are the fundamental unit of software execution
Components are isolated containers for Fuchsia software
Nearly all user space software is a component, from system services to end-user applications. The component framework encourages the composition of loosely coupled software. Capabilities used and exposed must be explicitly declared.
Software is delivered in self-contained packages
Packages have everything they need to run every time
Components are distributed through hermetic, or self-contained, packages that include all needed files. Fuchsia packages are a collection of components, files, and metadata. Isolated namespaces mean a component only has visibility to its own package.
Fuchsia has no global file system or ambient authority
Namespaces prevent programs from escaping their containers
Fuchsia aims to have no ambient authority, which means every operation is scoped to an object capability. Similarly, Fuchsia has no global file system. Instead, each program is given its own local namespace in which to operate.