RFC-0070: PCI protocol changes to support legacy interrupts

RFC-0070: PCI protocol changes to support legacy interrupts
  • Kernel

Mitigations for spurious PCI legacy interrupts.

Gerrit change
Date submitted (year-month-day)2020-01-17
Date reviewed (year-month-day)2020-02-25


In userspace the PCI Bus driver needs to be able to disable legacy level triggered interrupts until a device interrupt has been serviced to prevent the same IRQ from continually waking the Bus Driver's IRQ thread spuriously. To achieve this we need a way for a device driver to notify the Bus driver that it is ready to service a new interrupt and re-enable its legacy interrupt generation.


Most modern PCI devices operate via Messaged Signaled Interrupts (MSIs) controlled through optional MSI or MSI-X capabilities in the PCI configuration space. These interrupts are specific to a given device and are managed by a direct mapping between a kernel handle and an MsiInterruptDispatcher. Each MSI is provided to only a single device and can be treated as a standard system interrupt from a driver perspective.

However, PCI legacy interrupts operate via a set of interrupt lines shared across all PCI devices and are detailed in system firmware tables such as ACPI as defined by the PCI Firmware Specification. These interrupts are level triggered and active low by specification. When an interrupt is triggered it is the responsibility of system software to determine which device is responsible for the interrupt so it can be serviced and release the line. In the Kernel PCI Bus Driver (kPCI) this is handled by all legacy interrupts having a shared interrupt handler registered with all PciInterruptDispatchers in the kernel. This handler then determines which device has generated the interrupt and signals the appropriate interrupt object. The device's ability to generate interrupts is then disabled. The next time that driver waits on the dispatcher the Unmask hook will both unmask and re-enable the device's legacy interrupt generation capability.

With the Userspace PCI Bus Driver (uPCI) all this machinery has been moved to userspace. uPCI itself now operates a low overhead IRQ worker which determines the device responsible and signals a virtual interrupt that the device's driver interacts with. However, since the interrupts are level based the interrupt will keep firing if we lack a driver for the device, or if a given driver fails to service the interrupt properly. But if uPCI disables a device's interrupt so that a driver can handle it then we have no existing method for a PCI device driver to re-enable the interrupt. There is currently no way to notify the uPCI bus driver that a device driver has called zx_interrupt_wait or zx_port_wait on the virtual interrupt provided, so the bus driver doesn't know when a device's interrupt should be re-enabled.


We need to design for two different usages of interrupts in PCI drivers.

  1. Drivers which know they are PCI drivers and directly call the PciProtocol methods.
  2. Drivers which use the interrupt in a manner which prevents usage of PciProtocol methods.

When a legacy interrupt configured using PCI_IRQ_MODE_LEGACY is fired for a shared line the Bus driver is responsible for notifying the correct device. Similar to the kPCI driver, the Bus will disable a device's legacy interrupt when signaling to the driver that an interrupt is available to be serviced, effectively masking it. We will add a new PCI protocol method to allow for the device driver to request that its interrupt be re-enabled / unmasked. This call will be necessary for drivers that may interact with devices that use a legacy interrupt in some configurations, but will require no changes to devices that solely operate using MSIs. This results in no spurious interrupts and will suit the needs of the first usage described.

This is similar to Linux's handling of Userspace I/O interrupts.

For the second usage we will create an alternate legacy IRQ mode PCI_IRQ_MODE_LEGACY_ACKLESS. This mode will not be selected by ConfigureIrqMode() and will be need to be specifically selected by drivers with this unique requirement. Devices whose interrupt are configured in this manner will be monitored to see if the number of interrupts per second exceeds a configured number. If this occurs the device's ability to generate interrupts will be disabled. This operates similarly to Linux's handling of boot interrupts.


The changes can be made in order without any migrations or CQ concerns.

  1. Modify pci_configure_irq_mode to add an out parameter to store the IRQ mode chosen for drivers that are agnostic to their interrupt mode and update existing callers.
  2. Add a new protocol method pci_legacy_interrupt_ack (or simply pci_interrupt_ack) which re-enables legacy interrupts for the device and returns either ZX_OK, or ZX_ERR_BAD_STATE if the device is not configured to use legacy interrupts.
  3. Update existing callers of pci_configure_irq_mode and users of PCI_IRQ_MODE_LEGACY to use the new protocol method in their interrupt handling.
  4. Update drivers that handle interrupts abstractly and ensure they use PCI_IRQ_MODE_LEGACY_NOACK instead of PCI_IRQ_MODE_LEGACY.
  5. Have the uPCI IRQ worker disable a device's legacy interrupt generation when signaling the device driver's virtual interrupt once all the drivers are migrated.
  6. Extensively document the usage of PCI interrupts in the PciProtocol banjo as well as Fuchsia.dev.


The majority of PCI devices encountered will operate using MSIs. The types of devices that still use legacy interrupts are typically limited to older hardware, integrated SOC devices with low performance requirements, emulated environments that do not have MSI support, and devices that use an interrupt only rarely.

Drivers that wish to handle legacy interrupts will add an additional channel write to their interrupt handling routine by nature of this new PCI protocol method requiring a write from the driver devhost proxy to uPCI. This can be profiled by benchmarking the call itself, or checking aggregated cost of a channel write in Zircon aggregated benchmarks.

Security considerations


Privacy considerations



Existing integration and end-to-end tests in CQ/CI will verify that interrupts are still working properly after the change, and a new unit test will verify the operation of the changes to the pci_configure_irq_mode protocol method.


PCI documentation will need to be expanded to explain the theory of operation around interrupt modes. Additionally, it may be useful to note the need for pci_legacy_interrupt_ack in zx_interrupt_wait and zx_port_wait documentation.

Drawbacks, alternatives, and unknowns


Most drivers will prefer to solely use MSI / MSI-X interrupt modes and will not need to concern themselves with this api at all, so it is a more narrow change in the system to require only drivers that may encounter devices using legacy interrupts to handle this situation, rather than all drivers. However, this does run the risk that a driver written for a particular device setup would run into an issue where they only received their first interrupt if they fail to ack. This may come up for drivers that support a wide range of devices.

Situations with multiple backends gain some complexity as well. For example, our xHCI driver has something akin to the following. If its PCI support involves a legacy interrupt it might have to look something like:

// Initialize the proper setup and obtain an interrupt
if (pci_.is_valid()) {
} else {

do {
  // Wait loop on the interrupt
  // Handle the interrupt

  if (mode_ == XHCI_MODE_PCI && irq_mode_ == PCI_IRQ_MODE_LEGACY)
    status = pci_.LegacyInterruptAck();

If the ack code was omitted then this driver would work fine with MSI but receive no interrupts after the first in legacy mode. Improving the testing framework around PCI drivers will lead to better solutions for catching these errors during development.

Alternatives Considered

Mark excessive unhandled interrupts as spurious and disable the interrupt

Similar to Linux, we could simply set a threshold for sequential spurious interrupts and if reached we could disable or ignore that interrupt line until a reboot. One major problem with this approach is that when Linux handles a shared interrupt it calls the handler chain via the hard IRQ handler in the kernel before acking the interrupt when all handlers have finished. This ensures that all of the driver interrupt handlers have run before the ack, so spurious interrupts only occur if no handler properly handled the interrupt. With a uPCI driver in Zircon and device drivers being out of process we can signal them to wake their irq handling threads, but we have no way of knowing they have run to completion. This will lead to spurious interrupts in the common case depending on how quickly a driver's IRQ thread is scheduled and handles a given interrupt condition. However, this approach still results in more spurious interrupts than the ack proposal in the common case.

Add a PCI protocol method for waiting on interrupts

An option considered was to add a method to handle waiting on any type of interrupt, effectively pci_interrupt_wait to avoid needing an extra conditional in an interrupt.

Unfortunately, this results in PCI interrupts needing to be handled differently than other interrupts. To the best of our capabilities I believe making any interrupt object the same interface as any other interrupt object has a lot of value and it is important that a driver author continue to be able to use zx_interrupt_wait, zx_port_bind, zx_port_wait, and zx_object_wait_async. Most drivers in our system have some combination of an IRQ port with multiple interrupts, or multiple backends (UART, PCI, USB) to deal with, so it's important not to violate the interface around interrupt objects.

Handle this issue in derived InterruptDispatchers

We could keep kPCI's concept of a PciInterruptDispatcher and delegate this work to it, keeping the interrupt handling between a PCI device driver and the kernel. Unfortunately, this is a significant amount of coupling between the userspace PCI driver and Zircon kernel.

  1. Each specialized InterruptDispatcherwould need to be able to write to a PCI device's control register to disable the legacy interrupt. This would require ideally a VMO, not unlike our approach to MSI, or for an address to be provided to whatever syscall creates this object. There is no way around this because the Dispatcher must know which device it corresponds to.
  2. The interrupt disable is a single bit in a control register that the userspace Bus driver modifies frequently during bus and device initialization, presenting serious risks of race conditions if there are any pending interrupts.
  3. If we use a derived InterruptDispatcher in the devices themselves we still need to handle determining whose interrupt fired on a shared line. Since the devices are no longer acting with the bus for their interrupt handling it means that we need to keep logic similar to kPCI's SharedIrqHandler in the kernel.
  4. We now also need to plumb understanding of the PCI legacy IRQ routing table from ACPI / board files through the kernel again. This is processed in userspace & ACPI now.

At this time I don't see a reasonable path forward with this approach unless we are willing to concede that PCI is a special driver that needs some custom kernel code as well as ~2 additional syscalls to do its job.

Prior art and references

Handling this entirely in userspace is a uniquely Zircon problem in my research.

  1. OSX's DriverKit uses an IOInterruptDispatchSource which works in tandem with interrupt configuration and handling in the kernel. Additionally, PCIDriverKit only supports MSI and MSI-X interrupt modes.

    PCIDriverKit > IOPCIDevice

  2. Most Linux PCI interrupts are handled in the kernel itself. Shared interrupts have a chain of handlers registered to them by drivers. When an interrupt is fired the kernel calls each handler in sequence until one has handled the interrupt. If a shared interrupt line has enough spurious interrupts that are unhandled by any handles the kernel disables the interrupt.

    Linux Boot Interrupts

    Linux also supports simple userspace drivers through its Userspace I/O (UIO) interface. This allows for a driver to do a blocking read() on a provided /dev/uioX sysfs node to wait for an interrupt. Interrupts are disabled when triggered, but a driver can have them re-enabled by making a write() call to the sysfs node.

    The Userspace I/O HOWTO

  3. Most Windows PCI drivers are built using the Kernel-Mode Driver Framework (KMDF). Their interrupt handlers are called as part of Kernel interrupt dispatch and drivers register handlers that run in IRQ context.

    Introduction to Interrupt Service Routines