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RFC-0131: Design principles of the FIDL wire format

RFC-0131: Design principles of the FIDL wire format
  • FIDL

We describe various design principles underpinning the FIDL wire format.

Gerrit change
Date submitted (year-month-day)2021-06-15
Date reviewed (year-month-day)2021-09-29


We describe the current (as of Sept 2021) design principles underpinning the FIDL wire format.


The FIDL wire format specifies how messages are to be encoded (and decoded), as well as the format for transport level metadata such as the the transactional message header. Implicit in the wire format specification are theoretical boundaries which optimal implementation of it may attain. Just like data structures imply certain big-O bounds on operations, so does the wire format.

In Fuchsia, interprocess communication (at least control plane) is ubiquitously over FIDL or intended to be. As a result, the wire format has a significant impact on the overall target performance of the operating system. Similarly, the wire format has an important role as part of the many layered defense of privacy and security.

In March 2017, the design for "FIDL 2.0" was being completed. FIDL 2.0 is a more static version of FIDL, compared with later developments. See also RFC-0027: You only pay for what you use for additional historical context.

The goals for the wire format specification were as follows1:

  • Efficiently transfer messages between processes.
  • General purpose, for use with device drivers, high-level services, and applications.
  • Optimized for Zircon IPC only; portability is not a goal. (This goal was since relaxed.)2
  • Optimized for direct memory access; inter-machine transport is not a goal.
  • Optimized for 64-bit only; no accommodation for 32-bit environments.
  • Uses uncompressed native datatypes with host-endianness, first-fit packing of elements, and correct alignment to support in-place access of message contents.
  • Compatible with C structure in-memory layout (with suitable field ordering and packing annotations).
  • Structures are fixed size and inlined; variable-sized data is stored out-of-line.
  • Structures are not self-described; FIDL files describe their contents.
  • No versioning of structures, but interfaces can be extended with new methods for protocol evolution. (This goal was since relaxed.)[^2]
  • No offset calculations required, very little arithmetic which may overflow.
  • Support fast single-pass encoding and validation (as a combined operation).
  • Support fast single-pass decoding and validation (as a combined operation).

While the the ongoing evolution of the wire format has followed very specific design principles, some outlined above, these were not necessarily written down along with rationale. This RFC is an attempt at clearly writing these design principles down.


We describe the various design principles underpinning the FIDL wire format.

Low level first

When faced with making a design tradeoff to support low level programming at the expense of high level programming (or the reverse), we typically opt for enabling low level programming.

FIDL must satisfy the requirements of low level protocols in Fuchsia, sometimes used during the boot process when a malloc is not yet available for instance. The alternative, should FIDL not satisfy these requirements, is to manually design protocols. However, in high level programming, if FIDL is not able to satisfy the requirements, there are a lot of other options to choose from (Protobuf, Cap'n Proto, JSON, Yaml, and the like).

Single pass, and no heap allocation

It must be possible to encode and decode in a single pass, without allocation beyond stack space (i.e. no dynamic heap allocation).

This principle somewhat follows being over specialized towards low level use cases, and ensuring that any software on the system can fully participate in the FIDL ecosystem.

Because FIDL provides "decode + validate", the single pass requirement should be compared to similar systems offering both deserialization and validation, which is most often done in two passes (with validation occurring on the decoded form).

A corollary of the no allocation requirement is that encoding and decoding is done in-place, i.e. with in-place modifications.

As efficient as hand-rolled data structures

It must be possible to write an implementation of the wire format which is as efficient as hand-rolled data structures.

This is a specialization of the "you pay for what you use" principle, whereby the convenience and ergonomics that FIDL aims to provide must not be offered at the expense of performance. In practice, many implementations choose to be less efficient to provide additional ergonomics, but the wire format does not dictate this choice.

Canonical representation

There must be a single unambiguous representation of a FIDL value, i.e. there is one and only one encoded representation of a FIDL value, and one and only one decoded representation of a FIDL value.

By forcing a single representation, the wire format is naturally more strict, which means that implementations have to expect less variance in inputs and follow a more straight-line path. This helps ensure correctness, through reduction of surprises coming from data divergences. A canonical form makes it possible to check for equality of two values without the need to understand the schema, i.e. a memcmp suffices for value types (things are a little more complicated for resource types).

See also the drawbacks of a canonical form.

Specify every byte

When encoding or decoding, it must be possible to traverse every single byte of a message in a single pass and without any heap allocation.

To ensure that no data leaks from one process to another unbeknownst to the sender, we both ensure that all bytes can be efficiently traversed, and that all bytes have a specified value (e.g. padding must be 0). As an example, this can help to ensure that no personally identifiable information (PII) is inadvertently shared across process boundaries, or help avoid leaking uninitialized memory that could contain pointer values, which could be used to defeat address space layout randomization (ASLR). Another example is considering "trailing junk" invalid since all data and handles must be accounted for.

Validation everywhere

As part of our defense in depth, we want the FIDL wire format to enforce strict validation (e.g. bound checks, strings are well-formed UTF-8 code unit sequences, handles are of the correct type and rights) everywhere it is used.

Strict validation is considered worthwhile in ensuring the security of the platform, and helps API authors state assumptions and invariants of a design onto the API schema. It is also our experience that absent of validation in lower layers, applications tend to validate invariants themselves, leading to code that is less clear, tends to be less efficient, and more prone to bugs.

Since strict validation can be the source of high performance costs, and that FIDL is geared towards being used in low-level layers, a corollary is that such validation must be done efficiently, and designed to fit in a single pass.

No reflective functionality out of the box

Without explicit opt-in, a peer must not be allowed to perform reflection on a protocol, be it exposed methods, or exposed types.

For instance, if a peer calls the wrong FIDL method, the connection is closed, preventing any information to be extracted about the peer. It might seem convenient to build such functionality, but that may compromise privacy and be difficult to undo (users would start building load-bearing functionality off of this feature).

Similarly, structures lacking a self-descriptive format are in line with this principle, and meant to avoid disclosing more than necessary in an ecosystem where interacting peers ought to distrust each other. (There are also significant performance gains with avoiding a self-descriptive format, which aligns with the low level first approach.)

As we have changed the FIDL wire format to allow evolution, e.g. tables, we have had to navigate carefully the balance between forbidding reflection, and adding just enough to allow handling without a schema.


Keep calm, and follow the principles. As seen in RFC-0017.


Most guiding principles of the FIDL wire format are aimed at performance, and over specialize towards low level use cases. Performance is a central concern.


No change to ergonomics.

Backwards Compatibility

Some of the principles stated here are in conflict with the primary goal of FIDL which is providing a foundation for stable ABI, e.g. implementing backwards compatible protocols is challenging in the absence of reflexive features. Among other things, the design of the FIDL wire format strikes a balance between performance (often a result of rigidity) and evolvability concerns (often a result of flexibility). Balancing these is where the fun lies.

Security considerations

The role of FIDL in the multi layered approach to security on Fuchsia is explained in this RFC.

Privacy considerations

The role of FIDL in the multi layered approach to privacy on Fuchsia is explained in this RFC.


No change to testing.


Amend as needed:

Drawbacks, alternatives, and unknowns

As described in the text.

Drawbacks of a canonical form

Requiring a canonicalized form can constrain the problem of finding a good representation for data, to the point of discarding otherwise interesting or pursuable forms.

When working on sparser tables, canonicalization was one of the toughest constraints to satisfy, and directly conflicted with the need for the format to be performant. For instance, we could have explored writing members in the order provided by the users, without needing a second pass which reorders those members to satisfy canonicalization requirements.

Prior art and references

As described in the text.

  1. Authored by Jeff Brown jeffbrown@google.com

  2. Some goals have since been relaxed (portability, no versioning of structures), or tightened (endianness).