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RFC-0089: Core realm variations

RFC-0089: Core realm variations
StatusAccepted
Areas
  • Component Framework
Description

Generate custom core component realms per product configurations.

Issues
Gerrit change
Authors
Reviewers
Date submitted (year-month-day)2021-03-04
Date reviewed (year-month-day)2021-04-19

Summary

GN variables set in product definitions are used to generate a custom core realm in the component framework for that product.

Motivation

Today the core realm in CFv2 of the component framework is the component which holds most other packaged components in the v2 system. There is a single version of this component, which results in every product having the same set of static v2 components and capability routes for those components. This results in both components existing that have no purpose and will never be run, and overly broad capabilities being offered to components, as the core realm has to be built to be a union of all product configurations.

Additionally, the v1 component framework supports at build time conditionally adding capabilities and components to the sys realm for specific products. As components are migrated from v1 to v2, components which already depend on this will further exacerbate the issues with the current model requiring the core realm to have a single definition that meets the requirements of every product at once.

Some components have already been migrated from the v1 sys realm into the v2 core realm, with an increased pace of migrations expected in the second quarter of 2021.

Due to the above, we need the ability to tailor the exact contents of the central structure of the CFv2 realms to fit the product on which it is running.

Scope

This design aims to unlock additional component migrations in the very short term until a more advanced, future-proof solution is ready. This design is not aiming to be suitable for out of tree products, nor is it aiming to be a suitable long-term solution. The PDK efforts, which aim to enable out of tree product assembly, will solve the same problems addressed here in a more holistic fashion.

Design

The contents of the core realm manifest will be split up into a common base and CML shards that contain components and their capability routes that are optionally included by the product. For example, the /core/temperature-logger component which is present in CFv2 today is only functional on the astro product. Instead of including things relevant to temperature-logger in the base core manifest, the following shard would be added in a separate file:

{
    children: [
        {
            name: "temperature-logger",
            url: "fuchsia-pkg://fuchsia.com/temperature-logger#meta/temperature-logger.cm",
        },
    ],
    offer: [
        {
            protocol: "fuchsia.thermal.test.TemperatureLogger",
            from: "#temperature-logger",
            to: [ "#appmgr" ],
        },
        {
            protocol: [ "fuchsia.logger.LogSink" ],
            from: "parent",
            to: [ "#temperature-logger" ],
        },
        {
            directory: "dev",
            from: "parent",
            as: "dev-temperature",
            to: [ "#temperature-logger" ],
            subdir: "class/temperature",
        },
        {
            directory: "dev",
            from: "parent",
            as: "dev-thermal",
            to: [ "#temperature-logger" ],
            subdir: "class/thermal",
        },
        {
            directory: "config-data",
            from: "parent",
            to: [ "#temperature-logger" ],
            subdir: "temperature-logger",
        },
        {
            protocol: [
                "fuchsia.device.Controller",
                "fuchsia.hardware.temperature.Device",
            ],
            from: "parent",
            to: [ "#temperature-logger" ],
        },
        {
            protocol: "fuchsia.tracing.provider.Registry",
            from: "#appmgr",
            to: [ "#temperature-logger" ],
            dependency: "weak_for_migration",
        },
    ],
}

This shard will use a GN template to create a target for it, which contains the shard's path. For our temperature-logger example, the target would look like this:

core_shard("temperature_logger_shard") {
  shard = "//meta/temperature-logger.shard.cml"
}

Each product's .gni file (such as //products/workstation.gni) will be able to specify the GN targets of the shards which they would like to be included in the product's core realm.

core_realm_shards += [
  "//src/sys/core:temperature_logger_shard"
]

At product assembly time these targets are then gathered up using GN's generated_file() target and used as input to CMC's merge operation, where the shards to be included in the product are merged together with the core realm's base shard. In our current example, the shard for temperature-logger is the only shard merged with the core base shard.

This generated core realm will be included in a package whose name is derived from the product. So for example, the core manifest for the workstation product would be packaged at fuchsia-pkg://fuchsia.com/core-workstation#meta/core.cm.

This is because components are identified using URLs. These identifiers follow the webarch principles for identification, that "global naming leads to global network effects". As such, a given component URL refers to the same logical entity regardless of the context in which the URL exists. This approach implies there is one universe of software for Fuchsia that spans all the product and board configurations. Having each product be able to use the same URL to refer to the core realm, and having the contents behind that URL vary per-product, would not be following this principle.

Because the URL for the core realm will now be different between products, the root component manifest is modified at build-time to include the correct URL for the core realm for the current product. This product-specific root realm does not need to be packaged in a varying fashion like the core realm, as it is included directly in the ZBI, which is already product specific.

All components which are present on all products will be in the common base, and shards will only be created for components which are not included on some products. If a new product is added that wishes to exclude some component that up until that point was included on all previous products, then this component will be refactored out of the common base and into a shard.

Sessions and product-specific routes

In scenarios where product-specific capabilities in the core realm are to be routed through session manager to the session, there are two possible options.

One would be to have session manager route the superset of all capabilities across all products. In this case the routing for unavailable capabilities would fail at the core realm.

The second option would be to use a shard-based approach to also build product-specific session manager manifests, identical to how this proposal outlines this is done for the core realm. In this case the routing for unavailable capabilities would fail at the session manager realm. This approach would require the session manager and core shard lists to be kept in sync, and add additional build complexity and maintenance costs.

Both of these options would appear identical from the perspective of the session.

Implementation

This change can be made in a single gerrit CL. As GN arguments have default values, product definitions can add overrides to enable features they want at a later time.

An incomplete yet functional implementation, demonstrating how this approach works, can be found here.

Performance

As all of the work in this proposal happens at build-time, there will not be any run-time performance impact.

Security considerations

This proposal would result in components that should not be run on a product not existing on that product. It will also enable us to provide components with the capabilities they need for the product on which they are running, instead of always giving components the union of capabilities they may need across products.

This proposal would result in multiple possible variations of the CFv2 realm structure, which would result in security audits and tools (such as scrutiny) needing to be able to handle the new mechanics along with less of a shared base between products.

Privacy considerations

This proposal would result in components only existing on the products on which they should run and never receiving an overly broad set of capabilities, both of which have the potential to improve the system's privacy guarantees.

Testing

Product owners will need to ensure that required components are included on their products, and that the presence of these components is covered in testing. While this is already true due to product-specific package sets, the core realm variations proposed here add an additional point at which product definitions could accidentally omit an important component. This results in a slightly higher burden on product owners to ensure that test configurations remain consistent with product configurations.

Documentation

The exact GN arguments available to product owners to set will be documented at the place they are defined in GN. Additionally, markdown documentation will be maintained describing each manifest shard and the impact it will have on the product's core realm.