Google is committed to advancing racial equity for Black communities. See how.

Request pipelining in rust

Prerequisites

In this tutorial, you'll learn about the request pipelining pattern and its benefits. This tutorial expects you to already be familiar with the basics of writing and running FIDL clients and servers, which is covered in the Rust getting started tutorials.

Overview

A common aspect of using FIDL on Fuchsia is passing protocols themselves across protocols. Many FIDL messages include either the client end or the server end of a channel, where the channel is used to communicate over a different FIDL protocol. In this case, client end means that the remote end of the channel implements the specified protocol, whereas server end means that the remote end is making requests for the specified protocol. An alternate set of terms for client end and server end are protocol and protocol request.

This tutorial covers:

  • The usage of these client and server ends, both in FIDL and in the Rust FIDL bindings.
  • The request pipelining pattern and its benefits.

The full example code for this tutorial is located at //examples/fidl/rust/request_pipelining.

The FIDL protocol

This tutorial implements the EchoLauncher protocol from the fuchsia.examples library:

[Discoverable]
protocol EchoLauncher {
    GetEcho(string:MAX_STRING_LENGTH echo_prefix) -> (Echo response);
    GetEchoPipelined(string:MAX_STRING_LENGTH echo_prefix, request<Echo> request);
};

This is a protocol that lets clients retrieve an instance of the Echo protocol. Clients can specify a prefix, and the resulting Echo instance adds that prefix to every response.

There are two methods that can be used to accomplish this:

  • GetEcho: Takes the prefix as a request, and responds with the client end of a channel connected to an implementation of the Echo protocol. After receiving the client end in the response, the client can start making requests on the Echo protocol using the client end.
  • GetEchoPipelined: Takes the prefix and the server end of a channel as a request, and binds an implementation of Echo to it. The client that made the request is assumed to already hold the client end, and will start making Echo requests on that channel after calling GetEchoPipeliend.

As the name suggests, the latter uses a pattern called protocol request pipelining, and is the preferred approach. This tutorial implements both approaches.

Implement the server

Implement the Echo protocol

This implementation of Echo allows specifying a prefix in order to distinguish between the different instances of Echo servers:

// An Echo implementation that adds a prefix to every response
async fn run_echo_server(stream: EchoRequestStream, prefix: &str) -> Result<(), Error> {
    stream
        .map(|result| result.context("failed request"))
        .try_for_each(|request| async move {
            match request {
                // The SendString request is not used in this example, so just
                // ignore it
                EchoRequest::SendString { value: _, control_handle: _ } => {}
                EchoRequest::EchoString { value, responder } => {
                    println!("Got echo request for prefix {}", prefix);
                    let response = format!("{}: {}", prefix, value);
                    responder.send(&response).context("error sending response")?;
                }
            }
            Ok(())
        })
        .await
}

The SendString handler is empty as the client just uses EchoString.

Implement the EchoLauncher protocol

The general structure is similar to the Echo implementation, but one difference is that the try_for_each_concurrent is used instead of try_for_each. The client in this example launches two instances of Echo, so, using the concurrent version allows the two calls to run_echo_server to be run concurrently:

// The EchoLauncher implementation that launches Echo servers with the specified
// prefix
async fn run_echo_launcher_server(stream: EchoLauncherRequestStream) -> Result<(), Error> {
    // Currently the client only connects at most two Echo clients for each EchoLauncher
    stream
        .map(|result| result.context("request error"))
        .try_for_each_concurrent(2, |request| async move {
            let (echo_prefix, server_end) = match request {
                // In the non pipelined case, we need to initialize the
                // communication channel ourselves
                EchoLauncherRequest::GetEcho { echo_prefix, responder } => {
                    println!("Got non pipelined request");
                    let (client_end, server_end) = create_endpoints::<EchoMarker>()?;
                    responder.send(client_end)?;
                    (echo_prefix, server_end)
                }
                // In the pipelined case, the client is responsible for
                // initializing the channel, and passes the server its end of
                // the channel
                EchoLauncherRequest::GetEchoPipelined {
                    echo_prefix,
                    request,
                    control_handle: _,
                } => {
                    println!("Got pipelined request");
                    (echo_prefix, request)
                }
            };
            // Run the Echo server with the specified prefix
            run_echo_server(server_end.into_stream()?, &echo_prefix).await
        })
        .await
}

Both of the EchoLauncher methods are handled by calling run_echo_server on the server end of the channel. The difference is that in GetEcho, the server is responsible for initializing the channel - it uses one end as the server end and sends the other end back to the client. In GetEchoPipelined, the server end is provided as part of the request, so no additional work needs to be done by the server, and no response is necessary.

// The EchoLauncher implementation that launches Echo servers with the specified
// prefix
async fn run_echo_launcher_server(stream: EchoLauncherRequestStream) -> Result<(), Error> {
    // Currently the client only connects at most two Echo clients for each EchoLauncher
    stream
        .map(|result| result.context("request error"))
        .try_for_each_concurrent(2, |request| async move {
            let (echo_prefix, server_end) = match request {
                // In the non pipelined case, we need to initialize the
                // communication channel ourselves
                EchoLauncherRequest::GetEcho { echo_prefix, responder } => {
                    println!("Got non pipelined request");
                    let (client_end, server_end) = create_endpoints::<EchoMarker>()?;
                    responder.send(client_end)?;
                    (echo_prefix, server_end)
                }
                // In the pipelined case, the client is responsible for
                // initializing the channel, and passes the server its end of
                // the channel
                EchoLauncherRequest::GetEchoPipelined {
                    echo_prefix,
                    request,
                    control_handle: _,
                } => {
                    println!("Got pipelined request");
                    (echo_prefix, request)
                }
            };
            // Run the Echo server with the specified prefix
            run_echo_server(server_end.into_stream()?, &echo_prefix).await
        })
        .await
}

Serve the EchoLauncher protocol

The main loop should is the same as in the server tutorial but serves an EchoLauncher instead of Echo.

enum IncomingService {
    EchoLauncher(EchoLauncherRequestStream),
}

#[fasync::run_singlethreaded]
async fn main() -> Result<(), Error> {
    let mut fs = ServiceFs::new_local();
    fs.dir("svc").add_fidl_service(IncomingService::EchoLauncher);
    fs.take_and_serve_directory_handle()?;

    const MAX_CONCURRENT: usize = 1000;
    let fut = fs.for_each_concurrent(MAX_CONCURRENT, |IncomingService::EchoLauncher(stream)| {
        run_echo_launcher_server(stream).unwrap_or_else(|e| println!("{:?}", e))
    });

    println!("Running echo launcher server");
    fut.await;
    Ok(())
}

Build the server

Optionally, to check that things are correct, try building the server:

  1. Configure your GN build to include the server:

    fx set core.x64 --with //examples/fidl/rust/request_pipelining/server
    
  2. Build the Fuchsia image:

    fx build
    

Implement the client

After connecting to the EchoLauncher server, the client code connects to one instance of Echo using GetEcho and another using GetEchoPipelined and then makes an EchoString request on each instance.

This is the non-pipelined code:

#[fasync::run_singlethreaded]
async fn main() -> Result<(), Error> {
    let echo_launcher =
        connect_to_service::<EchoLauncherMarker>().context("Failed to connect to echo service")?;

    // Create a future that obtains an Echo protocol using the non-pipelined
    // GetEcho method
    let non_pipelined_fut = async {
        let client_end = echo_launcher.get_echo("not pipelined").await?;
        // "Upgrade" the client end in the response into an Echo proxy, and
        // make an EchoString request on it
        let proxy = client_end.into_proxy()?;
        proxy.echo_string("hello").map_ok(|val| println!("Got echo response {}", val)).await
    };

    // Create a future that obtains an Echo protocol using the pipelined GetEcho
    // method
    let (proxy, server_end) = create_proxy::<EchoMarker>()?;
    echo_launcher.get_echo_pipelined("pipelined", server_end)?;
    // We can make a request to the server right after sending the pipelined request
    let pipelined_fut =
        proxy.echo_string("hello").map_ok(|val| println!("Got echo response {}", val));

    // Run the two futures to completion
    let (non_pipelined_result, pipelined_result) = join!(non_pipelined_fut, pipelined_fut);
    pipelined_result?;
    non_pipelined_result?;
    Ok(())
}

This code chains together two futures. First, it makes the GetEcho request to the client. It then takes the result of that future, and then uses it to create a client object (the proxy), calls EchoString, and then blocks on the result using await.

Despite having to initialize the channel first, the pipelined code is much simpler:

#[fasync::run_singlethreaded]
async fn main() -> Result<(), Error> {
    let echo_launcher =
        connect_to_service::<EchoLauncherMarker>().context("Failed to connect to echo service")?;

    // Create a future that obtains an Echo protocol using the non-pipelined
    // GetEcho method
    let non_pipelined_fut = async {
        let client_end = echo_launcher.get_echo("not pipelined").await?;
        // "Upgrade" the client end in the response into an Echo proxy, and
        // make an EchoString request on it
        let proxy = client_end.into_proxy()?;
        proxy.echo_string("hello").map_ok(|val| println!("Got echo response {}", val)).await
    };

    // Create a future that obtains an Echo protocol using the pipelined GetEcho
    // method
    let (proxy, server_end) = create_proxy::<EchoMarker>()?;
    echo_launcher.get_echo_pipelined("pipelined", server_end)?;
    // We can make a request to the server right after sending the pipelined request
    let pipelined_fut =
        proxy.echo_string("hello").map_ok(|val| println!("Got echo response {}", val));

    // Run the two futures to completion
    let (non_pipelined_result, pipelined_result) = join!(non_pipelined_fut, pipelined_fut);
    pipelined_result?;
    non_pipelined_result?;
    Ok(())
}

create_proxy is used, which is a shortcut for creating the two ends of a channel and converting one end into a proxy. After the call to GetEchoPipelined, the client can immediately make the EchoString request.

Finally, the two futures corresponding to the non-pipelined and pipelined calls are run to completion concurrently, to see which one completes first:

#[fasync::run_singlethreaded]
async fn main() -> Result<(), Error> {
    let echo_launcher =
        connect_to_service::<EchoLauncherMarker>().context("Failed to connect to echo service")?;

    // Create a future that obtains an Echo protocol using the non-pipelined
    // GetEcho method
    let non_pipelined_fut = async {
        let client_end = echo_launcher.get_echo("not pipelined").await?;
        // "Upgrade" the client end in the response into an Echo proxy, and
        // make an EchoString request on it
        let proxy = client_end.into_proxy()?;
        proxy.echo_string("hello").map_ok(|val| println!("Got echo response {}", val)).await
    };

    // Create a future that obtains an Echo protocol using the pipelined GetEcho
    // method
    let (proxy, server_end) = create_proxy::<EchoMarker>()?;
    echo_launcher.get_echo_pipelined("pipelined", server_end)?;
    // We can make a request to the server right after sending the pipelined request
    let pipelined_fut =
        proxy.echo_string("hello").map_ok(|val| println!("Got echo response {}", val));

    // Run the two futures to completion
    let (non_pipelined_result, pipelined_result) = join!(non_pipelined_fut, pipelined_fut);
    pipelined_result?;
    non_pipelined_result?;
    Ok(())
}

Build the client

Optionally, to check that things are correct, try building the client:

  1. Configure your GN build to include the server:

    fx set core.x64 --with //examples/fidl/rust/request_pipelining/client`
    
  2. Build the Fuchsia image:

    fx build
    

Run the example code

To run the example code:

  1. Configure your GN build as follows:

    fx set core.x64 --with //examples/fidl/rust/request_pipelining/client --with //examples/fidl/rust/request_pipelining/server --with //examples/fidl/test:echo-launcher
    
  2. Run the example:

    fx shell run fuchsia-pkg://fuchsia.com/echo-launcher#meta/launcher.cmx fuchsia-pkg://fuchsia.com/echo-launcher-rust-client#meta/echo-client.cmx fuchsia-pkg://fuchsia.com/echo-launcher-rust-server#meta/echo-server.cmx fuchsia.examples.EchoLauncher
    

You should see the following print output in the QEMU console (or using fx log):

[115871.934] 535502:535504> Running echo launcher server
[115871.940] 535502:535504> Got non pipelined request
[115871.942] 535502:535504> Got pipelined request
[115871.942] 535502:535504> Got echo request for prefix pipelined:
[115871.942] 535502:535504> Got echo request for prefix not pipelined:
[115871.943] 535282:535284> Got echo response pipelined: : hello
[115871.943] 535282:535284> Got echo response not pipelined: : hello`

Based on the print order, you can see that the pipelined case is faster. The echo response for the pipelined case arrives first, even though the non pipelined request is sent first, since request pipelining saves a roundtrip between the client and server. Request pipelining also simplifies the code.

For further reading about protocol request pipelining, including how to handle protocol requests that may fail, see the FIDL API rubric.