FIDL example: Key-value store

In this example, we start by creating a simple write-only key-value store, then proceed to augment its functionality with various capabilities, such as reading from the store, iterating over its members, and creating backups.

Getting started

This baseline case showcases an end-to-end implementation of a write-only key-value store implemented using FIDL. This allows each client to have its own bespoke key-value store on the server, which it can connect to using the Store protocol, and write to using the WriteItem method.

First, we need to define our interface definitions and test harness. The FIDL, CML, and realm interface definitions set up a scaffold that arbitrary implementations can use:

FIDL

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
library examples.keyvaluestore.baseline;

/// An item in the store. The key must match the regex `^[A-z][A-z0-9_\.\/]{2,62}[A-z0-9]$`. That
/// is, it must start with a letter, end with a letter or number, contain only letters, numbers,
/// periods, and slashes, and be between 4 and 64 characters long.
type Item = struct {
    key string:128;
    value vector<byte>:64000;
};

/// An enumeration of things that may go wrong when trying to write a value to our store.
type WriteError = flexible enum {
    UNKNOWN = 0;
    INVALID_KEY = 1;
    INVALID_VALUE = 2;
    ALREADY_EXISTS = 3;
};

/// A very basic key-value store - so basic, in fact, that one may only write to it, never read!
@discoverable
protocol Store {
    /// Writes an item to the store.
    WriteItem(struct {
        attempt Item;
    }) -> () error WriteError;
};

CML

Client

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
{
    include: [ "syslog/client.shard.cml" ],
    program: {
        runner: "elf",
        binary: "bin/client_bin",
    },
    use: [
        { protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.baseline.Store" },
    ],
    config: {
        write_items: {
            type: "vector",
            max_count: 16,
            element: {
                type: "string",
                max_size: 64,
            },
        },
    },
}

Server

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
{
    include: [ "syslog/client.shard.cml" ],
    program: {
        runner: "elf",
        binary: "bin/server_bin",
    },
    capabilities: [
        { protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.baseline.Store" },
    ],
    expose: [
        {
            protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.baseline.Store",
            from: "self",
        },
    ],
}

Realm

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
{
    children: [
        {
            name: "client",
            url: "#meta/client.cm",
        },
        {
            name: "server",
            url: "#meta/server.cm",
        },
    ],
    offer: [
        // Route the protocol under test from the server to the client.
        {
            protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.baseline.Store",
            from: "#server",
            to: "#client",
        },

        // Route logging support to all children.
        {
            protocol: "fuchsia.logger.LogSink",
            from: "parent",
            to: [
                "#client",
                "#server",
            ],
        },
    ],
}

Client and server implementations can then be written in any supported language:

Rust

Client

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

use {
    anyhow::{Context as _, Error},
    config::Config,
    fidl_examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::{Item, StoreMarker},
    fuchsia_component::client::connect_to_protocol,
    std::{thread, time},
};

#[fuchsia::main]
async fn main() -> Result<(), Error> {
    println!("Started");

    // Load the structured config values passed to this component at startup.
    let config = Config::take_from_startup_handle();

    // Use the Component Framework runtime to connect to the newly spun up server component. We wrap
    // our retained client end in a proxy object that lets us asynchronously send `Store` requests
    // across the channel.
    let store = connect_to_protocol::<StoreMarker>()?;
    println!("Outgoing connection enabled");

    // This client's structured config has one parameter, a vector of strings. Each string is the
    // path to a resource file whose filename is a key and whose contents are a value. We iterate
    // over them and try to write each key-value pair to the remote store.
    for key in config.write_items.into_iter() {
        let path = format!("/pkg/data/{}.txt", key);
        let value = std::fs::read_to_string(path.clone())
            .with_context(|| format!("Failed to load {path}"))?;
        match store.write_item(&mut Item { key: key, value: value.into_bytes() }).await? {
            Ok(_) => println!("WriteItem Success"),
            Err(err) => println!("WriteItem Error: {}", err.into_primitive()),
        }
    }

    // TODO(fxbug.dev/76579): We need to sleep here to make sure all logs get drained. Once the
    // referenced bug has been resolved, we can remove the sleep.
    thread::sleep(time::Duration::from_secs(2));
    Ok(())
}

Server

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

use {
    anyhow::{Context as _, Error},
    fidl_examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::{Item, StoreRequest, StoreRequestStream, WriteError},
    fuchsia_component::server::ServiceFs,
    futures::prelude::*,
    lazy_static::lazy_static,
    regex::Regex,
    std::cell::RefCell,
    std::collections::hash_map::Entry,
    std::collections::HashMap,
};

lazy_static! {
    static ref KEY_VALIDATION_REGEX: Regex =
        Regex::new(r"^[A-Za-z]\w+[A-Za-z0-9]$").expect("Key validation regex failed to compile");
}

/// Handler for the `WriteItem` method.
fn write_item(store: &mut HashMap<String, Vec<u8>>, attempt: Item) -> Result<(), WriteError> {
    // Validate the key.
    if !KEY_VALIDATION_REGEX.is_match(attempt.key.as_str()) {
        println!("Write error: INVALID_KEY, For key: {}", attempt.key);
        return Err(WriteError::InvalidKey);
    }

    // Validate the value.
    if attempt.value.is_empty() {
        println!("Write error: INVALID_VALUE, For key: {}", attempt.key);
        return Err(WriteError::InvalidValue);
    }

    // Write to the store, validating that the key did not already exist.
    match store.entry(attempt.key) {
        Entry::Occupied(entry) => {
            println!("Write error: ALREADY_EXISTS, For key: {}", entry.key());
            Err(WriteError::AlreadyExists)
        }
        Entry::Vacant(entry) => {
            println!("Wrote value at key: {}", entry.key());
            entry.insert(attempt.value);
            Ok(())
        }
    }
}

/// Creates a new instance of the server. Each server has its own bespoke, per-connection instance
/// of the key-value store.
async fn run_server(stream: StoreRequestStream) -> Result<(), Error> {
    // Create a new in-memory key-value store. The store will live for the lifetime of the
    // connection between the server and this particular client.
    let store = RefCell::new(HashMap::<String, Vec<u8>>::new());

    // Serve all requests on the protocol sequentially - a new request is not handled until its
    // predecessor has been processed.
    stream
        .map(|result| result.context("failed request"))
        .try_for_each(|request| async {
            // Match based on the method being invoked.
            match request {
                StoreRequest::WriteItem { attempt, responder } => {
                    println!("WriteItem request received");

                    // The `responder` parameter is a special struct that manages the outgoing reply
                    // to this method call. Calling `send` on the responder exactly once will send
                    // the reply.
                    responder
                        .send(&mut write_item(&mut store.borrow_mut(), attempt))
                        .context("error sending reply")?;
                    println!("WriteItem response sent");
                }
            }
            Ok(())
        })
        .await
}

// A helper enum that allows us to treat a `Store` service instance as a value.
enum IncomingService {
    Store(StoreRequestStream),
}

#[fuchsia::main]
async fn main() -> Result<(), Error> {
    println!("Started");

    // Add a discoverable instance of our `Store` protocol - this will allow the client to see the
    // server and connect to it.
    let mut fs = ServiceFs::new_local();
    fs.dir("svc").add_fidl_service(IncomingService::Store);
    fs.take_and_serve_directory_handle()?;
    println!("Listening for incoming connections");

    // The maximum number of concurrent clients that may be served by this process.
    const MAX_CONCURRENT: usize = 10;

    // Serve each connection simultaneously, up to the `MAX_CONCURRENT` limit.
    fs.for_each_concurrent(MAX_CONCURRENT, |IncomingService::Store(stream)| {
        run_server(stream).unwrap_or_else(|e| println!("{:?}", e))
    })
    .await;

    Ok(())
}

C++ (Natural)

Client

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

#include <fidl/examples.keyvaluestore.baseline/cpp/fidl.h>
#include <lib/async-loop/cpp/loop.h>
#include <lib/component/incoming/cpp/service_client.h>
#include <lib/syslog/cpp/macros.h>
#include <unistd.h>

#include <examples/fidl/new/key_value_store/baseline/cpp_natural/client/config.h>
#include <src/lib/files/file.h>
#include <src/lib/fxl/strings/string_printf.h>

int main(int argc, const char** argv) {
  FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Started";

  // Retrieve component configuration.
  auto conf = config::Config::TakeFromStartupHandle();

  // Start up an async loop and dispatcher.
  async::Loop loop(&kAsyncLoopConfigNeverAttachToThread);
  async_dispatcher_t* dispatcher = loop.dispatcher();

  // Connect to the protocol inside the component's namespace. This can fail so it's wrapped in a
  // |zx::result| and it must be checked for errors.
  zx::result client_end = component::Connect<examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::Store>();
  if (!client_end.is_ok()) {
    FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Synchronous error when connecting to the |Store| protocol: "
                   << client_end.status_string();
    return -1;
  }

  // Create an asynchronous client using the newly-established connection.
  fidl::Client client(std::move(*client_end), dispatcher);
  FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Outgoing connection enabled";

  for (const auto& action : conf.write_items()) {
    std::string text;
    if (!files::ReadFileToString(fxl::StringPrintf("/pkg/data/%s.txt", action.c_str()), &text)) {
      FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "It looks like the correct `resource` dependency has not been packaged";
      break;
    }

    auto value = std::vector<uint8_t>(text.begin(), text.end());
    client->WriteItem(examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::Item(action, value))
        .ThenExactlyOnce(
            [&](fidl::Result<examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::Store::WriteItem> result) {
              // Check if the FIDL call succeeded or not.
              if (!result.is_ok()) {
                if (result.error_value().is_framework_error()) {
                  FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Unexpected FIDL framework error: " << result.error_value();
                } else {
                  FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem Error: "
                                << fidl::ToUnderlying(result.error_value().domain_error());
                }
              } else {
                FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem Success";
              }

              // Quit the loop, thereby handing control back to the outer loop of actions being
              // iterated over.
              loop.Quit();
            });

    // Run the loop until the callback is resolved, at which point we can continue from here.
    loop.Run();
    loop.ResetQuit();
  }

  // TODO(fxbug.dev/76579): We need to sleep here to make sure all logs get drained. Once the
  // referenced bug has been resolved, we can remove the sleep.
  sleep(2);
  return 0;
}

Server

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

#include <fidl/examples.keyvaluestore.baseline/cpp/fidl.h>
#include <lib/async-loop/cpp/loop.h>
#include <lib/async/cpp/task.h>
#include <lib/fidl/cpp/wire/channel.h>
#include <lib/sys/component/cpp/outgoing_directory.h>
#include <lib/syslog/cpp/macros.h>
#include <unistd.h>

#include <re2/re2.h>

// An implementation of the |Store| protocol.
class StoreImpl final : public fidl::Server<examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::Store> {
 public:
  // Bind this implementation to a channel.
  StoreImpl(async_dispatcher_t* dispatcher,
            fidl::ServerEnd<examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::Store> server_end)
      : binding_(fidl::BindServer(
            dispatcher, std::move(server_end), this,
            [this](StoreImpl* impl, fidl::UnbindInfo info,
                   fidl::ServerEnd<examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::Store> server_end) {
              if (info.reason() != ::fidl::Reason::kPeerClosed) {
                FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Shutdown unexpectedly";
              }
              delete this;
            })) {}

  void WriteItem(WriteItemRequest& request, WriteItemCompleter::Sync& completer) override {
    FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem request received";
    auto key = request.attempt().key();
    auto value = request.attempt().value();

    // Validate the key.
    if (!RE2::FullMatch(key, "^[A-Za-z]\\w+[A-Za-z0-9]$")) {
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Write error: INVALID_KEY, For key: " << key;
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem response sent";
      return completer.Reply(fit::error(examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::WriteError::kInvalidKey));
    }

    // Validate the value.
    if (value.empty()) {
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Write error: INVALID_VALUE, For key: " << key;
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem response sent";
      return completer.Reply(
          fit::error(examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::WriteError::kInvalidValue));
    }

    if (key_value_store_.find(key) != key_value_store_.end()) {
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Write error: ALREADY_EXISTS, For key: " << key;
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem response sent";
      return completer.Reply(
          fit::error(examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::WriteError::kAlreadyExists));
    }

    // Ensure that the value does not already exist in the store.
    key_value_store_.insert({key, value});
    FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Wrote value at key: " << key;
    FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem response sent";
    return completer.Reply(fit::ok());
  }

 private:
  fidl::ServerBindingRef<examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::Store> binding_;

  // The map that serves as the per-connection instance of the key-value store.
  std::unordered_map<std::string, std::vector<uint8_t>> key_value_store_ = {};
};

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
  FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Started";

  // The event loop is used to asynchronously listen for incoming connections and requests from the
  // client. The following initializes the loop, and obtains the dispatcher, which will be used when
  // binding the server implementation to a channel.
  async::Loop loop(&kAsyncLoopConfigNeverAttachToThread);
  async_dispatcher_t* dispatcher = loop.dispatcher();

  // Create an |OutgoingDirectory| instance.
  //
  // The |component::OutgoingDirectory| class serves the outgoing directory for our component. This
  // directory is where the outgoing FIDL protocols are installed so that they can be provided to
  // other components.
  component::OutgoingDirectory outgoing = component::OutgoingDirectory::Create(dispatcher);

  // The `ServeFromStartupInfo()` function sets up the outgoing directory with the startup handle.
  // The startup handle is a handle provided to every component by the system, so that they can
  // serve capabilities (e.g. FIDL protocols) to other components.
  zx::result result = outgoing.ServeFromStartupInfo();
  if (result.is_error()) {
    FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Failed to serve outgoing directory: " << result.status_string();
    return -1;
  }

  // Register a handler for components trying to connect to |Store|.
  result = outgoing.AddProtocol<examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::Store>(
      [dispatcher](fidl::ServerEnd<examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::Store> server_end) {
        // Create an instance of our StoreImpl that destroys itself when the connection closes.
        new StoreImpl(dispatcher, std::move(server_end));
      });
  if (result.is_error()) {
    FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Failed to add Store protocol: " << result.status_string();
    return -1;
  }

  // Everything is wired up. Sit back and run the loop until an incoming connection wakes us up.
  FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Listening for incoming connections";
  loop.Run();
  return 0;
}

C++ (Wire)

Client

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

#include <fidl/examples.keyvaluestore.baseline/cpp/wire.h>
#include <lib/async-loop/cpp/loop.h>
#include <lib/component/incoming/cpp/service_client.h>
#include <lib/syslog/cpp/macros.h>
#include <unistd.h>

#include <examples/fidl/new/key_value_store/baseline/cpp_wire/client/config.h>
#include <src/lib/files/file.h>
#include <src/lib/fxl/strings/string_printf.h>

int main(int argc, const char** argv) {
  FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Started";

  // Retrieve component configuration.
  auto conf = config::Config::TakeFromStartupHandle();

  // Start up an async loop and dispatcher.
  async::Loop loop(&kAsyncLoopConfigNeverAttachToThread);
  async_dispatcher_t* dispatcher = loop.dispatcher();

  // Connect to the protocol inside the component's namespace. This can fail so it's wrapped in a
  // |zx::result| and it must be checked for errors.
  zx::result client_end = component::Connect<examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::Store>();
  if (!client_end.is_ok()) {
    FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Synchronous error when connecting to the |Store| protocol: "
                   << client_end.status_string();
    return -1;
  }

  // Create an asynchronous client using the newly-established connection.
  fidl::WireClient client(std::move(*client_end), dispatcher);
  FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Outgoing connection enabled";

  for (const auto& key : conf.write_items()) {
    std::string text;
    if (!files::ReadFileToString(fxl::StringPrintf("/pkg/data/%s.txt", key.c_str()), &text)) {
      FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "It looks like the correct `resource` dependency has not been packaged";
      break;
    }

    auto value = std::vector<uint8_t>(text.begin(), text.end());
    client
        ->WriteItem(
            {fidl::StringView::FromExternal(key), fidl::VectorView<uint8_t>::FromExternal(value)})
        .ThenExactlyOnce(
            [&](fidl::WireUnownedResult<examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::Store::WriteItem>&
                    result) {
              if (!result.ok()) {
                FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Unexpected framework error";
              } else if (result->is_error()) {
                FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem Error: " << fidl::ToUnderlying(result->error_value());
              } else {
                FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem Success";
              }

              // Quit the loop, thereby handing control back to the outer loop of actions being
              // iterated over.
              loop.Quit();
            });

    // Run the loop until the callback is resolved, at which point we can continue from here.
    loop.Run();
    loop.ResetQuit();
  }

  // TODO(fxbug.dev/76579): We need to sleep here to make sure all logs get drained. Once the
  // referenced bug has been resolved, we can remove the sleep.
  sleep(2);
  return 0;
}

Server

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

#include <fidl/examples.keyvaluestore.baseline/cpp/wire.h>
#include <lib/async-loop/cpp/loop.h>
#include <lib/async/cpp/task.h>
#include <lib/fidl/cpp/wire/channel.h>
#include <lib/sys/component/cpp/outgoing_directory.h>
#include <lib/syslog/cpp/macros.h>
#include <unistd.h>

#include <re2/re2.h>

// An implementation of the |Store| protocol.
class StoreImpl final : public fidl::WireServer<examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::Store> {
 public:
  // Bind this implementation to a channel.
  StoreImpl(async_dispatcher_t* dispatcher,
            fidl::ServerEnd<examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::Store> server_end)
      : binding_(fidl::BindServer(
            dispatcher, std::move(server_end), this,
            [this](StoreImpl* impl, fidl::UnbindInfo info,
                   fidl::ServerEnd<examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::Store> server_end) {
              if (info.reason() != ::fidl::Reason::kPeerClosed) {
                FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Shutdown unexpectedly";
              }
              delete this;
            })) {}

  void WriteItem(WriteItemRequestView request, WriteItemCompleter::Sync& completer) override {
    FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem request received";
    std::string key{request->attempt.key.get()};
    std::vector<uint8_t> value{request->attempt.value.begin(), request->attempt.value.end()};

    // Validate the key.
    if (!RE2::FullMatch(key, "^[A-Za-z]\\w+[A-Za-z0-9]$")) {
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Write error: INVALID_KEY, For key: " << key;
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem response sent";
      return completer.Reply(fit::error(examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::WriteError::kInvalidKey));
    }

    // Validate the value.
    if (value.empty()) {
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Write error: INVALID_VALUE, For key: " << key;
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem response sent";
      return completer.Reply(
          fit::error(examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::WriteError::kInvalidValue));
    }

    if (key_value_store_.find(key) != key_value_store_.end()) {
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Write error: ALREADY_EXISTS, For key: " << key;
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem response sent";
      return completer.Reply(
          fit::error(examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::WriteError::kAlreadyExists));
    }

    // Ensure that the value does not already exist in the store.
    key_value_store_.insert({key, value});
    FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Wrote value at key: " << key;
    FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem response sent";
    return completer.Reply(fit::success());
  }

 private:
  fidl::ServerBindingRef<examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::Store> binding_;

  // The map that serves as the per-connection instance of the key-value store.
  std::unordered_map<std::string, const std::vector<uint8_t>> key_value_store_ = {};
};

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
  FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Started";

  // The event loop is used to asynchronously listen for incoming connections and requests from the
  // client. The following initializes the loop, and obtains the dispatcher, which will be used when
  // binding the server implementation to a channel.
  async::Loop loop(&kAsyncLoopConfigNeverAttachToThread);
  async_dispatcher_t* dispatcher = loop.dispatcher();

  // Create an |OutgoingDirectory| instance.
  //
  // The |component::OutgoingDirectory| class serves the outgoing directory for our component. This
  // directory is where the outgoing FIDL protocols are installed so that they can be provided to
  // other components.
  component::OutgoingDirectory outgoing = component::OutgoingDirectory::Create(dispatcher);

  // The `ServeFromStartupInfo()` function sets up the outgoing directory with the startup handle.
  // The startup handle is a handle provided to every component by the system, so that they can
  // serve capabilities (e.g. FIDL protocols) to other components.
  zx::result result = outgoing.ServeFromStartupInfo();
  if (result.is_error()) {
    FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Failed to serve outgoing directory: " << result.status_string();
    return -1;
  }

  // Register a handler for components trying to connect to |Store|.
  result = outgoing.AddProtocol<examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::Store>(
      [dispatcher](fidl::ServerEnd<examples_keyvaluestore_baseline::Store> server_end) {
        // Create an instance of our StoreImpl that destroys itself when the connection closes.
        new StoreImpl(dispatcher, std::move(server_end));
      });
  if (result.is_error()) {
    FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Failed to add Store protocol: " << result.status_string();
    return -1;
  }

  // Everything is wired up. Sit back and run the loop until an incoming connection wakes us up.
  FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Listening for incoming connections";
  loop.Run();
  return 0;
}

HLCPP

Client

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): HLCPP implementation.

Server

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): HLCPP implementation.

Improving the design

Each of the following sections explores one potential way that we could iterate on the original design. Rather than building on one another sequentially, each presents an independent way in which the base case presented above may be modified or improved.

Adding support for reading from the store

The originally write-only key-value store is now extended with the ability to read items back out of the store.

The changes applied to the FIDL and CML definitions are as follows:

FIDL

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
library examples.keyvaluestore.addreaditem;

// Aliases for the key and value. Using aliases helps increase the readability of FIDL files and
// reduces likelihood of errors due to differing constraints.
alias Key = string:128;
alias Value = vector<byte>:64000;

/// An item in the store. The key must match the regex `^[A-z][A-z0-9_\.\/]{2,62}[A-z0-9]$`. That
/// is, it must start with a letter, end with a letter or number, contain only letters, numbers,
/// periods, and slashes, and be between 4 and 64 characters long.
type Item = struct {
    key Key;
    value Value;
};

/// An enumeration of things that may go wrong when trying to write a value to our store.
type WriteError = flexible enum {
    UNKNOWN = 0;
    INVALID_KEY = 1;
    INVALID_VALUE = 2;
    ALREADY_EXISTS = 3;
};

/// An enumeration of things that may go wrong when trying to read a value out of our store.
type ReadError = flexible enum {
    UNKNOWN = 0;
    NOT_FOUND = 1;
};

/// A very basic key-value store - so basic, in fact, that one may only write to it, never read!
@discoverable
protocol Store {
    /// Writes an item to the store.
    WriteItem(struct {
        attempt Item;
    }) -> () error WriteError;

    /// Reads an item from the store.
    ReadItem(struct {
        key Key;
    }) -> (Item) error ReadError;
};

CML

Client

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
{
    include: [ "syslog/client.shard.cml" ],
    program: {
        runner: "elf",
        binary: "bin/client_bin",
    },
    use: [
        { protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.addreaditem.Store" },
    ],
    config: {
        write_items: {
            type: "vector",
            max_count: 16,
            element: {
                type: "string",
                max_size: 64,
            },
        },

        read_items: {
            type: "vector",
            max_count: 16,
            element: {
                type: "string",
                max_size: 64,
            },
        },

    },
}

Server

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
{
    include: [ "syslog/client.shard.cml" ],
    program: {
        runner: "elf",
        binary: "bin/server_bin",
    },
    capabilities: [
        { protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.addreaditem.Store" },
    ],
    expose: [
        {
            protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.addreaditem.Store",
            from: "self",
        },
    ],
}

Realm

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
{
    children: [
        {
            name: "client",
            url: "#meta/client.cm",
        },
        {
            name: "server",
            url: "#meta/server.cm",
        },
    ],
    offer: [
        // Route the protocol under test from the server to the client.
        {
            protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.addreaditem.Store",
            from: "#server",
            to: "#client",
        },

        // Route logging support to all children.
        {
            protocol: "fuchsia.logger.LogSink",
            from: "parent",
            to: [
                "#client",
                "#server",
            ],
        },
    ],
}

Client and server implementations for all languages change as well:

Rust

Client

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

use {
    anyhow::{Context as _, Error},
    config::Config,
    fidl_examples_keyvaluestore_addreaditem::{Item, StoreMarker},
    fuchsia_component::client::connect_to_protocol,
    std::{str, thread, time},
};

#[fuchsia::main]
async fn main() -> Result<(), Error> {
    println!("Started");

    // Load the structured config values passed to this component at startup.
    let config = Config::take_from_startup_handle();

    // Use the Component Framework runtime to connect to the newly spun up server component. We wrap
    // our retained client end in a proxy object that lets us asynchronously send `Store` requests
    // across the channel.
    let store = connect_to_protocol::<StoreMarker>()?;
    println!("Outgoing connection enabled");

    // This client's structured config has one parameter, a vector of strings. Each string is the
    // path to a resource file whose filename is a key and whose contents are a value. We iterate
    // over them and try to write each key-value pair to the remote store.
    for key in config.write_items.into_iter() {
        let path = format!("/pkg/data/{}.txt", key);
        let value = std::fs::read_to_string(path.clone())
            .with_context(|| format!("Failed to load {path}"))?;
        match store.write_item(&mut Item { key: key, value: value.into_bytes() }).await? {
            Ok(_) => println!("WriteItem Success"),
            Err(err) => println!("WriteItem Error: {}", err.into_primitive()),
        }
    }

    // The structured config for this client contains `read_items`, a vector of strings, each of
    // which is meant to be read from the key-value store. We iterate over these keys, attempting to
    // read them in turn.
    for key in config.read_items.into_iter() {
        let res = store.read_item(key.as_str()).await;
        match res.unwrap() {
            Ok(val) => {
                println!("ReadItem Success: key: {}, value: {}", key, str::from_utf8(&val.1)?)
            }
            Err(err) => println!("ReadItem Error: {}", err.into_primitive()),
        }
    }

    // TODO(fxbug.dev/76579): We need to sleep here to make sure all logs get drained. Once the
    // referenced bug has been resolved, we can remove the sleep.
    thread::sleep(time::Duration::from_secs(2));
    Ok(())
}

Server

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

use {
    anyhow::{Context as _, Error},
    fidl_examples_keyvaluestore_addreaditem::{
        Item, ReadError, StoreRequest, StoreRequestStream, WriteError,
    },
    fuchsia_component::server::ServiceFs,
    futures::prelude::*,
    lazy_static::lazy_static,
    regex::Regex,
    std::cell::RefCell,
    std::collections::hash_map::Entry,
    std::collections::HashMap,
};

lazy_static! {
    static ref KEY_VALIDATION_REGEX: Regex =
        Regex::new(r"^[A-Za-z][A-Za-z0-9_\./]{2,62}[A-Za-z0-9]$")
            .expect("Key validation regex failed to compile");
}

/// Handler for the `WriteItem` method.
fn write_item(store: &mut HashMap<String, Vec<u8>>, attempt: Item) -> Result<(), WriteError> {
    // Validate the key.
    if !KEY_VALIDATION_REGEX.is_match(attempt.key.as_str()) {
        println!("Write error: INVALID_KEY, For key: {}", attempt.key);
        return Err(WriteError::InvalidKey);
    }

    // Validate the value.
    if attempt.value.is_empty() {
        println!("Write error: INVALID_VALUE, For key: {}", attempt.key);
        return Err(WriteError::InvalidValue);
    }

    // Write to the store, validating that the key did not already exist.
    match store.entry(attempt.key) {
        Entry::Occupied(entry) => {
            println!("Write error: ALREADY_EXISTS, For key: {}", entry.key());
            Err(WriteError::AlreadyExists)
        }
        Entry::Vacant(entry) => {
            println!("Wrote value at key: {}", entry.key());
            entry.insert(attempt.value);
            Ok(())
        }
    }
}

/// Creates a new instance of the server. Each server has its own bespoke, per-connection instance
/// of the key-value store.
async fn run_server(stream: StoreRequestStream) -> Result<(), Error> {
    // Create a new in-memory key-value store. The store will live for the lifetime of the
    // connection between the server and this particular client.
    let store = RefCell::new(HashMap::<String, Vec<u8>>::new());

    // Serve all requests on the protocol sequentially - a new request is not handled until its
    // predecessor has been processed.
    stream
        .map(|result| result.context("failed request"))
        .try_for_each(|request| async {
            // Match based on the method being invoked.
            match request {
                StoreRequest::WriteItem { attempt, responder } => {
                    println!("WriteItem request received");

                    // The `responder` parameter is a special struct that manages the outgoing reply
                    // to this method call. Calling `send` on the responder exactly once will send
                    // the reply.
                    responder
                        .send(&mut write_item(&mut store.borrow_mut(), attempt))
                        .context("error sending reply")?;
                    println!("WriteItem response sent");
                }
                StoreRequest::ReadItem { key, responder } => {
                    println!("ReadItem request received");

                    // Read the item from the store, returning the appropriate error if it could not be found.
                    responder
                        .send(&mut match store.borrow().get(&key) {
                            Some(found) => {
                                println!("Read value at key: {}", key);
                                Ok((key, found.clone()))
                            }
                            None => {
                                println!("Read error: NOT_FOUND, For key: {}", key);
                                Err(ReadError::NotFound)
                            }
                        })
                        .context("error sending reply")?;
                    println!("ReadItem response sent");
                } //
            }
            Ok(())
        })
        .await
}

// A helper enum that allows us to treat a `Store` service instance as a value.
enum IncomingService {
    Store(StoreRequestStream),
}

#[fuchsia::main]
async fn main() -> Result<(), Error> {
    println!("Started");

    // Add a discoverable instance of our `Store` protocol - this will allow the client to see the
    // server and connect to it.
    let mut fs = ServiceFs::new_local();
    fs.dir("svc").add_fidl_service(IncomingService::Store);
    fs.take_and_serve_directory_handle()?;
    println!("Listening for incoming connections");

    // The maximum number of concurrent clients that may be served by this process.
    const MAX_CONCURRENT: usize = 10;

    // Serve each connection simultaneously, up to the `MAX_CONCURRENT` limit.
    fs.for_each_concurrent(MAX_CONCURRENT, |IncomingService::Store(stream)| {
        run_server(stream).unwrap_or_else(|e| println!("{:?}", e))
    })
    .await;

    Ok(())
}

C++ (Natural)

Client

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): C++ (Natural) implementation.

Server

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): C++ (Natural) implementation.

C++ (Wire)

Client

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): C++ (Wire) implementation.

Server

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): C++ (Wire) implementation.

HLCPP

Client

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): HLCPP implementation.

Server

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): HLCPP implementation.

Using generic values

The key-value store baseline example's implementation was a good starting point, but one major drawback is that data is stored as raw bytes. FIDL is a richly typed language. Forcing data that is for instance a UTF-8 string to be stored as an untyped byte array erases this valuable type information for readers of the *.fidl file, as well as for programmers using bindings generated from it.

The main goal of this change is to replace the baseline case's vector<byte> typed value member with a union that stores many possible types. In fact, as of this change a good survey of FIDL's value types is on offer:

  • All of FIDL's builtin scalar types are used as variants in the Value union: bool, uint8, uint16, uint32, uint64, int8, int16, int32, int64, float32, and float64 (also known as FIDL's primitive types), as well as string.
  • This union also features uses of FIDL's builtin array<T, N> and vector<T> type templates.
  • All of FIDL's type layouts, namely bits, enum, table, union, and struct, are utilized in this example at least once.

The request and response payloads used for WriteItem have also been changed from structs to a named table and an inlined flexible union, respectively. In fact, any of these three layouts may be used a request/response payload. The latter two, known as table payloads and *union payloads, respectively, are preferred in all but the most message size sensitive cases. This is because they are much easier to extend in the future in a binary compatible way.

FIDL

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
library examples.keyvaluestore.usegenericvalues;

/// An item in the store. The key must match the regex `^[A-z][A-z0-9_\.\/]{2,62}[A-z0-9]$`. That
/// is, it must start with a letter, end with a letter or number, contain only letters, numbers,
/// periods, and slashes, and be between 4 and 64 characters long.
type Item = struct {
    key string:128;
    value Value;
};

// Because the `Value` must be used both in the request and the response, we give it its own named
// type. The type is a `union` of all possible data types that we take as values, and is marked
// `flexible` to allow for the easy addition of new data types in the future.
type Value = flexible union {
    // Keep the original `bytes` as one of the options in the new union.
    1: bytes vector<byte>:64000;

    // A `string` is very similar to `vector<byte>` on the wire, with the extra constraint that
    // it enforces that it enforces that the byte vector in question is valid UTF-8.
    2: string string:64000;

    // All of FIDL's primitive types.
    3: bool bool;
    4: uint8 uint8;
    5: int8 int8;
    6: uint16 uint16;
    7: int16 int16;
    8: uint32 uint32;
    9: int32 int32;
   10: float32 float32;
   11: uint64 uint64;
   12: int64 int64;
   13: float64 float64;

    // FIDL does not natively support 128-bit integer types, so we have to define our own
    // representations.
   14: uint128 array<uint64, 2>;
};

// Because we now supoprt a richer range of types as values in our store, it is helpful to use a
// `flexible`, and therefore evolvable, `bits` type to store write options.
type WriteOptions = flexible bits : uint8 {
    // This flag allows us to overwrite existing data when there is a collision, rather than failing
    // with an `WriteError.ALREADY_EXISTS`.
    OVERWRITE = 0b1;
    // This flag allows us to concatenate to existing data when there is a collision, rather than
    // failing with an `WriteError.ALREADY_EXISTS`. "Concatenation" means addition for the numeric
    // variants and appending to the `bytes`/`string` variants. If no existing data can be found, we
    // "concatenate" to default values of zero and an empty vector, respectively. Attempting to
    // concatenate to an existing variant of a different type will return a
    // `WriteError.INVALID_VALUE` error.
    CONCAT = 0b10;
};

/// An enumeration of things that may go wrong when trying to write a value to our store.
type WriteError = flexible enum {
    UNKNOWN = 0;
    INVALID_KEY = 1;
    INVALID_VALUE = 2;
    ALREADY_EXISTS = 3;
};

/// A very basic key-value store.
@discoverable
protocol Store {
    /// Writes an item to the store.
    ///
    /// Since the value stored in the key-value store can now be different from the input (if the
    /// `WriteOptions.CONCAT` flag is set), we need to return the resulting `Value` to the
    /// requester.
    ///
    /// We use an (anonymous) `table` and a (named) `flexible union` as the request and response
    /// payload, respectively, to allow for easier future evolution. Both of these types are
    /// `flexible`, meaning that adding or removing members is binary-compatible. This makes them
    /// much easier to evolve that the `struct` types that were previously used, which cannot be
    /// changed after release without breaking ABI.
    WriteItem(table {
        1: attempt Item;
        2: options WriteOptions;
    }) -> (Value) error WriteError;
};

CML

Client

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
{
    include: [ "syslog/client.shard.cml" ],
    program: {
        runner: "elf",
        binary: "bin/client_bin",
    },
    use: [
        { protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.usegenericvalues.Store" },
    ],
    config: {
        // A vector of values for every easily representible type in our key-value store. For
        // brevity's sake, the 8, 16, and 32 bit integer types and booleans are omitted.
        //
        // TODO(fxbug.dev/96264): It would absolve individual language implementations of a great
        //   deal of string parsing if we were able to use all FIDL constructs directly here. In
        //   particular, floats and nested types are very difficult to represent, and have been
        //   excluded from this example for the time being.
        set_concat_option: { type: "bool" },
        set_overwrite_option: { type: "bool" },
        write_bytes: {
            type: "vector",
            max_count: 16,
            element: {
                type: "string",
                max_size: 64,
            },
        },
        write_strings: {
            type: "vector",
            max_count: 16,
            element: {
                type: "string",
                max_size: 64,
            },
        },
        write_uint64s: {
            type: "vector",
            max_count: 16,
            element: { type: "uint64" },
        },
        write_int64s: {
            type: "vector",
            max_count: 16,
            element: { type: "int64" },
        },

        // Note: due to the limitation of structured config not allowing vectors nested in vectors,
        // we only set the lower half of the uint128 for simplicity's sake.
        write_uint128s: {
            type: "vector",
            max_count: 16,
            element: { type: "uint64" },
        },

    },
}

Server

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
{
    include: [ "syslog/client.shard.cml" ],
    program: {
        runner: "elf",
        binary: "bin/server_bin",
    },
    capabilities: [
        { protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.usegenericvalues.Store" },
    ],
    expose: [
        {
            protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.usegenericvalues.Store",
            from: "self",
        },
    ],
}

Realm

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
{
    children: [
        {
            name: "client",
            url: "#meta/client.cm",
        },
        {
            name: "server",
            url: "#meta/server.cm",
        },
    ],
    offer: [
        // Route the protocol under test from the server to the client.
        {
            protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.usegenericvalues.Store",
            from: "#server",
            to: "#client",
        },

        // Route logging support to all children.
        {
            protocol: "fuchsia.logger.LogSink",
            from: "parent",
            to: [
                "#client",
                "#server",
            ],
        },
    ],
}

Client and server implementations can then be written in any supported language:

Rust

Client

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

use {
    anyhow::{Context as _, Error},
    config::Config,
    fidl_examples_keyvaluestore_usegenericvalues::{
        Item, StoreMarker, StoreProxy, StoreWriteItemRequest, Value, WriteOptions,
    },
    fuchsia_component::client::connect_to_protocol,
    std::{thread, time},
};

// A helper function to sequentially write a single item to the key-value store and print a log when
// successful.
async fn write_next_item(
    store: &StoreProxy,
    key: &str,
    value: Value,
    options: WriteOptions,
) -> Result<(), Error> {
    // Create an empty request payload using `::EMPTY`.
    let mut req = StoreWriteItemRequest::EMPTY;
    req.options = Some(options);

    // Fill in the `Item` we will be attempting to write.
    println!("WriteItem request sent: key: {}, value: {:?}", &key, &value);
    req.attempt = Some(Item { key: key.to_string(), value: value });

    // Send and async `WriteItem` request to the server.
    match store.write_item(req).await.context("Error sending request")? {
        Ok(value) => println!("WriteItem response received: {:?}", &value),
        Err(err) => println!("WriteItem Error: {}", err.into_primitive()),
    }
    Ok(())
}

#[fuchsia::main]
async fn main() -> Result<(), Error> {
    println!("Started");

    // Load the structured config values passed to this component at startup.
    let config = Config::take_from_startup_handle();

    // Use the Component Framework runtime to connect to the newly spun up server component. We wrap
    // our retained client end in a proxy object that lets us asynchronously send `Store` requests
    // across the channel.
    let store = connect_to_protocol::<StoreMarker>()?;
    println!("Outgoing connection enabled");

    // All of our requests will have the same bitflags set. Pull these settings from the config.
    let mut options = WriteOptions::empty();
    options.set(WriteOptions::OVERWRITE, config.set_overwrite_option);
    options.set(WriteOptions::CONCAT, config.set_concat_option);

    // The structured config provides one input for most data types that can be stored in the data
    // store. Iterate through those inputs in the order we see them in the FIDL file.
    //
    // Note that FIDL unions are rendered as enums in Rust; for example, the `Value` union has now
    // become a `Value` Rust enum, with each member taking exactly one argument.
    for value in config.write_bytes.into_iter() {
        write_next_item(&store, "bytes", Value::Bytes(value.into()), options).await?;
    }
    for value in config.write_strings.into_iter() {
        write_next_item(&store, "string", Value::String(value), options).await?;
    }
    for value in config.write_uint64s.into_iter() {
        write_next_item(&store, "uint64", Value::Uint64(value), options).await?;
    }
    for value in config.write_int64s.into_iter() {
        write_next_item(&store, "int64", Value::Int64(value), options).await?;
    }
    for value in config.write_uint128s.into_iter() {
        write_next_item(&store, "uint128", Value::Uint128([0, value]), options).await?;
    }

    // TODO(fxbug.dev/76579): We need to sleep here to make sure all logs get drained. Once the
    // referenced bug has been resolved, we can remove the sleep.
    thread::sleep(time::Duration::from_secs(2));
    Ok(())
}

Server

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

use {
    anyhow::{Context as _, Error},
    fuchsia_component::server::ServiceFs,
    futures::prelude::*,
    lazy_static::lazy_static,
    regex::Regex,
    std::cell::RefCell,
    std::collections::hash_map::Entry,
    std::collections::HashMap,
};

use {
    fidl_examples_keyvaluestore_usegenericvalues::{
        Item, StoreRequest, StoreRequestStream, Value, WriteError, WriteOptions,
    },
    std::collections::hash_map::OccupiedEntry,
    std::ops::Add,
};

lazy_static! {
    static ref KEY_VALIDATION_REGEX: Regex =
        Regex::new(r"^[A-Za-z]\w+[A-Za-z0-9]$").expect("Key validation regex failed to compile");
}

/// Sums any numeric type.
fn sum<T: Add + Add<Output = T> + Copy>(operands: [T; 2]) -> T {
    operands[0] + operands[1]
}

/// Clones and inserts an entry, so that the original (now concatenated) copy may be returned in the
/// response.
fn write(inserting: Value, mut entry: OccupiedEntry<'_, String, Value>) -> Value {
    entry.insert(inserting.clone());
    println!("Wrote key: {}, value: {:?}", entry.key(), &inserting);
    inserting
}

/// Handler for the `WriteItem` method.
fn write_item(
    store: &mut HashMap<String, Value>,
    attempt: Item,
    options: &WriteOptions,
) -> Result<Value, WriteError> {
    // Validate the key.
    if !KEY_VALIDATION_REGEX.is_match(attempt.key.as_str()) {
        println!("Write error: INVALID_KEY for key: {}", attempt.key);
        return Err(WriteError::InvalidKey);
    }

    match store.entry(attempt.key) {
        Entry::Occupied(entry) => {
            // The `CONCAT` flag supersedes the `OVERWRITE` flag, so check it first.
            if options.contains(WriteOptions::CONCAT) {
                match entry.get() {
                    Value::Bytes(old) => {
                        if let Value::Bytes(new) = attempt.value {
                            let mut combined = old.clone();
                            combined.extend(new);
                            return Ok(write(Value::Bytes(combined), entry));
                        }
                    }
                    Value::String(old) => {
                        if let Value::String(new) = attempt.value {
                            return Ok(write(Value::String(format!("{}{}", old, &new)), entry));
                        }
                    }
                    Value::Uint64(old) => {
                        if let Value::Uint64(new) = attempt.value {
                            return Ok(write(Value::Uint64(sum([*old, new])), entry));
                        }
                    }
                    Value::Int64(old) => {
                        if let Value::Int64(new) = attempt.value {
                            return Ok(write(Value::Int64(sum([*old, new])), entry));
                        }
                    }
                    // Note: only works on the uint64 range in practice.
                    Value::Uint128(old) => {
                        if let Value::Uint128(new) = attempt.value {
                            return Ok(write(Value::Uint128([0, sum([old[1], new[1]])]), entry));
                        }
                    }
                    _ => {
                        panic!("actively unsupported type!")
                    }
                }

                // Only reachable if the type of the would be concatenated value did not match the
                // value already occupying this entry.
                println!("Write error: INVALID_VALUE for key: {}", entry.key());
                return Err(WriteError::InvalidValue);
            }

            // If we're not doing CONCAT, check for OVERWRITE next.
            if options.contains(WriteOptions::OVERWRITE) {
                return Ok(write(attempt.value, entry));
            }

            println!("Write error: ALREADY_EXISTS for key: {}", entry.key());
            Err(WriteError::AlreadyExists)
        }
        Entry::Vacant(entry) => {
            println!("Wrote key: {}, value: {:?}", entry.key(), &attempt.value);
            entry.insert(attempt.value.clone());
            Ok(attempt.value)
        }
    }
}

/// Creates a new instance of the server. Each server has its own bespoke, per-connection instance
/// of the key-value store.
async fn run_server(stream: StoreRequestStream) -> Result<(), Error> {
    // Create a new in-memory key-value store. The store will live for the lifetime of the
    // connection between the server and this particular client.
    let store = RefCell::new(HashMap::<String, Value>::new());

    // Serve all requests on the protocol sequentially - a new request is not handled until its
    // predecessor has been processed.
    stream
        .map(|result| result.context("failed request"))
        .try_for_each(|request| async {
            // Match based on the method being invoked.
            match request {
                // Because we are using a table payload, there is an extra level of indirection. The
                // top-level container for the table itself is always called "payload".
                StoreRequest::WriteItem { payload, responder } => {
                    println!("WriteItem request received");

                    // Error out if either of the request table's members are not set.
                    let attempt = payload.attempt.context("required field 'attempt' is unset")?;
                    let options = payload.options.context("required field 'options' is unset")?;

                    // The `responder` parameter is a special struct that manages the outgoing reply
                    // to this method call. Calling `send` on the responder exactly once will send
                    // the reply.
                    responder
                        .send(&mut write_item(&mut store.borrow_mut(), attempt, &options))
                        .context("error sending reply")?;
                    println!("WriteItem response sent");
                } //
            }
            Ok(())
        })
        .await
}

// A helper enum that allows us to treat a `Store` service instance as a value.
enum IncomingService {
    Store(StoreRequestStream),
}

#[fuchsia::main]
async fn main() -> Result<(), Error> {
    println!("Started");

    // Add a discoverable instance of our `Store` protocol - this will allow the client to see the
    // server and connect to it.
    let mut fs = ServiceFs::new_local();
    fs.dir("svc").add_fidl_service(IncomingService::Store);
    fs.take_and_serve_directory_handle()?;
    println!("Listening for incoming connections");

    // The maximum number of concurrent clients that may be served by this process.
    const MAX_CONCURRENT: usize = 10;

    // Serve each connection simultaneously, up to the `MAX_CONCURRENT` limit.
    fs.for_each_concurrent(MAX_CONCURRENT, |IncomingService::Store(stream)| {
        run_server(stream).unwrap_or_else(|e| println!("{:?}", e))
    })
    .await;

    Ok(())
}

C++ (Natural)

Client

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): C++ (Natural) implementation.

Server

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): C++ (Natural) implementation.

C++ (Wire)

Client

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): C++ (Wire) implementation.

Server

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): C++ (Wire) implementation.

HLCPP

Client

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): HLCPP implementation.

Server

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): HLCPP implementation.

Supporting nested key-value stores

In this variant, we allow our key-value store to take other key-value stores as members. In short, we turn it into a tree. We do this by replacing the original definition of value with one that utilizes a two-member union: one variant stores leaf nodes using the same vector<byte> type as before, while the other stores branch nodes in the form of other nested stores.

Here, we see several uses of optionality, whereby we can declare a type that may or may not exist. There are three flavors of optionality in FIDL:

  • Types that have are always stored out-of-line on the wire, and thus have a builtin way to describe "absentness" via the null envelope. Enabling optionality for these types doesn't affect the wire shape of messages they are included in - it simply changes which values are valid for that particular type. The union, vector<T>, client_end, server_end, and zx.handle types can all be made optional via the addition of the :optional constraint. By making our value union optional, we are able to introduce a canonical "null" entry, in the form of an absent value. This means that empty bytes and absent/empty store properties are invalid values.
  • Unlike the aforementioned types, the struct layout has no extra space where a null header can be stored. Because of this, it needs to be wrapped in an envelope, changing the on-the-wire shape of the message it is being included in. To ensure that this wire-modifying effect easily legible, the Item struct type must be wrapped in a box<T> type template.
  • Finally, table layouts are always optional. An absent table is simply one with none of its members set.

Trees are a naturally self-referential data structure: any node in the tree may contain a leaf with pure data (in this case, a string), or a sub-tree with more nodes. This requires recursion: the definition of Item is now transitively dependent on itself! Representing recursive types in FIDL can be a bit tricky, especially because support is currently somewhat limited. We can support such types as long as there is at least one optional type in the cycle created by the self-reference. For instance, here we define the items struct member to be a box<Item>, thereby breaking the includes cycle.

These changes also make heavy use of anonymous types, or types whose declarations are inlined at their sole point of use, rather than being named, top-level type declarations of their own. By default, the names of anonymous types in the generated language bindings are taken from their local context. For instance, the newly introduced flexible union takes on its owning member's name Value, the newly introduced struct would become Store, and so on. Because this heuristic can sometimes cause collisions, FIDL provides an escape hatch by allowing the author to manually override an anonymous type's generated name. This is done via the @generated_name attribute, which allows one to change the name generated by backends. We can use one here, where the would-be Store type is renamed to NestedStore to prevent a name collision with the protocol declaration that uses that same name.

The FIDL, CML, and realm interface definitions are modified as follows:

FIDL

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
library examples.keyvaluestore.supporttrees;

/// An item in the store. The key must match the regex `^[A-z][A-z0-9_\.\/]{2,62}[A-z0-9]$`. That
/// is, it must start with a letter, end with a letter or number, contain only letters, numbers,
/// periods, and slashes, and be between 4 and 64 characters long.
type Item = struct {
    key string:128;
    value strict union {
        // Keep the original `bytes` as one of the options in the new union. All leaf nodes in the
        // tree must be `bytes`, or absent unions (representing empty). Empty byte arrays are
        // disallowed.
        1: bytes vector<byte>:64000;

        // Allows a store within a store, thereby turning our flat key-value store into a tree
        // thereof. Note the use of `@generated_name` to prevent a type-name collision with the
        // `Store` protocol below, and the use of `box<T>` to ensure that there is a break in the
        // chain of recursion, thereby allowing `Item` to include itself in its own definition.
        //
        // This is a table so that added fields, like for example a `hash`, can be easily added in
        // the future.
        2: store @generated_name("nested_store") table {
            1: items vector<box<Item>>;
        };
    } :optional;
};

/// An enumeration of things that may go wrong when trying to write a value to our store.
type WriteError = flexible enum {
    UNKNOWN = 0;
    INVALID_KEY = 1;
    INVALID_VALUE = 2;
    ALREADY_EXISTS = 3;
};

/// A very basic key-value store.
@discoverable
protocol Store {
    /// Writes an item to the store.
    WriteItem(struct {
        attempt Item;
    }) -> () error WriteError;
};

CML

Client

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
{
    include: [ "syslog/client.shard.cml" ],
    program: {
        runner: "elf",
        binary: "bin/client_bin",
    },
    use: [
        { protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.supporttrees.Store" },
    ],
    config: {
        write_items: {
            type: "vector",
            max_count: 16,
            element: {
                type: "string",
                max_size: 64,
            },
        },

        // A newline separated list nested entries. The first line should be the key
        // for the nested store, and each subsequent entry should be a pointer to a text file
        // containing the string value. The name of that text file (without the `.txt` suffix) will
        // serve as the entries key.
        write_nested: {
            type: "vector",
            max_count: 16,
            element: {
                type: "string",
                max_size: 64,
            },
        },

        // A list of keys, all of which will be populated as null entries.
        write_null: {
            type: "vector",
            max_count: 16,
            element: {
                type: "string",
                max_size: 64,
            },
        },

    },
}

Server

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
{
    include: [ "syslog/client.shard.cml" ],
    program: {
        runner: "elf",
        binary: "bin/server_bin",
    },
    capabilities: [
        { protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.supporttrees.Store" },
    ],
    expose: [
        {
            protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.supporttrees.Store",
            from: "self",
        },
    ],
}

Realm

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
{
    children: [
        {
            name: "client",
            url: "#meta/client.cm",
        },
        {
            name: "server",
            url: "#meta/server.cm",
        },
    ],
    offer: [
        // Route the protocol under test from the server to the client.
        {
            protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.supporttrees.Store",
            from: "#server",
            to: "#client",
        },

        // Route logging support to all children.
        {
            protocol: "fuchsia.logger.LogSink",
            from: "parent",
            to: [
                "#client",
                "#server",
            ],
        },
    ],
}

Client and server implementations can then be written in any supported language:

Rust

Client

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

use {
    anyhow::{Context as _, Error},
    config::Config,
    fidl_examples_keyvaluestore_supporttrees::{Item, NestedStore, StoreMarker, Value},
    fuchsia_component::client::connect_to_protocol,
    std::{thread, time},
};

#[fuchsia::main]
async fn main() -> Result<(), Error> {
    println!("Started");

    // Load the structured config values passed to this component at startup.
    let config = Config::take_from_startup_handle();

    // Use the Component Framework runtime to connect to the newly spun up server component. We wrap
    // our retained client end in a proxy object that lets us asynchronously send `Store` requests
    // across the channel.
    let store = connect_to_protocol::<StoreMarker>()?;
    println!("Outgoing connection enabled");

    // This client's structured config has one parameter, a vector of strings. Each string is the
    // path to a resource file whose filename is a key and whose contents are a value. We iterate
    // over them and try to write each key-value pair to the remote store.
    for key in config.write_items.into_iter() {
        let path = format!("/pkg/data/{}.txt", key);
        let value = std::fs::read_to_string(path.clone())
            .with_context(|| format!("Failed to load {path}"))?;
        let res = store
            .write_item(&mut Item {
                key: key.clone(),
                value: Some(Box::new(Value::Bytes(value.into_bytes()))),
            })
            .await;
        match res? {
            Ok(_) => println!("WriteItem Success at key: {}", key),
            Err(err) => println!("WriteItem Error: {}", err.into_primitive()),
        }
    }

    // Add nested entries to the key-value store as well. The entries are strings, where the first
    // line is the key of the entry, and each subsequent entry should be a pointer to a text file
    // containing the string value. The name of that text file (without the `.txt` suffix) will
    // serve as the entries key.
    for spec in config.write_nested.into_iter() {
        let mut items = vec![];
        let mut nested_store = NestedStore::EMPTY;
        let mut lines = spec.split("\n");
        let key = lines.next().unwrap();

        // For each entry, make a new entry in the `NestedStore` being built.
        for entry in lines {
            let path = format!("/pkg/data/{}.txt", entry);
            let contents = std::fs::read_to_string(path.clone())
                .with_context(|| format!("Failed to load {path}"))?;
            items.push(Some(Box::new(Item {
                key: entry.to_string(),
                value: Some(Box::new(Value::Bytes(contents.into()))),
            })));
        }
        nested_store.items = Some(items);

        // Send the `NestedStore`, represented as a vector of values.
        let res = store
            .write_item(&mut Item {
                key: key.to_string(),
                value: Some(Box::new(Value::Store(nested_store))),
            })
            .await;
        match res? {
            Ok(_) => println!("WriteItem Success at key: {}", key),
            Err(err) => println!("WriteItem Error: {}", err.into_primitive()),
        }
    }

    // Each entry in this list is a null value in the store.
    for key in config.write_null.into_iter() {
        match store.write_item(&mut Item { key: key.to_string(), value: None }).await? {
            Ok(_) => println!("WriteItem Success at key: {}", key),
            Err(err) => println!("WriteItem Error: {}", err.into_primitive()),
        }
    }

    // TODO(fxbug.dev/76579): We need to sleep here to make sure all logs get drained. Once the
    // referenced bug has been resolved, we can remove the sleep.
    thread::sleep(time::Duration::from_secs(2));
    Ok(())
}

Server

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

use {
    anyhow::{Context as _, Error},
    fidl_examples_keyvaluestore_supporttrees::{
        Item, StoreRequest, StoreRequestStream, Value, WriteError,
    },
    fuchsia_component::server::ServiceFs,
    futures::prelude::*,
    lazy_static::lazy_static,
    regex::Regex,
    std::cell::RefCell,
    std::collections::hash_map::Entry,
    std::collections::HashMap,
    std::str::from_utf8,
};

lazy_static! {
    static ref KEY_VALIDATION_REGEX: Regex =
        Regex::new(r"^[A-Za-z]\w+[A-Za-z0-9]$").expect("Key validation regex failed to compile");
}

// A representation of a key-value store that can contain an arbitrarily deep nesting of other
// key-value stores.
enum StoreNode {
    Leaf(Option<Vec<u8>>),
    Branch(Box<HashMap<String, StoreNode>>),
}

/// Recursive item writer, which takes a `StoreNode` that may not necessarily be the root node, and
/// writes an entry to it.
fn write_item(
    store: &mut HashMap<String, StoreNode>,
    attempt: Item,
    path: &str,
) -> Result<(), WriteError> {
    // Validate the key.
    if !KEY_VALIDATION_REGEX.is_match(attempt.key.as_str()) {
        println!("Write error: INVALID_KEY, For key: {}", attempt.key);
        return Err(WriteError::InvalidKey);
    }

    // Write to the store, validating that the key did not already exist.
    match store.entry(attempt.key) {
        Entry::Occupied(entry) => {
            println!("Write error: ALREADY_EXISTS, For key: {}", entry.key());
            Err(WriteError::AlreadyExists)
        }
        Entry::Vacant(entry) => {
            let key = format!("{}{}", &path, entry.key());
            match attempt.value {
                // Null entries are allowed.
                None => {
                    println!("Wrote value: NONE at key: {}", key);
                    entry.insert(StoreNode::Leaf(None));
                }
                Some(value) => match *value {
                    // If this is a nested store, recursively make a new store to insert at this
                    // position.
                    Value::Store(entry_list) => {
                        // Validate the value - absent stores, items lists with no children, or any
                        // of the elements within that list being empty boxes, are all not allowed.
                        if entry_list.items.is_some() {
                            let items = entry_list.items.unwrap();
                            if !items.is_empty() && items.iter().all(|i| i.is_some()) {
                                let nested_path = format!("{}/", key);
                                let mut nested_store = HashMap::<String, StoreNode>::new();
                                for item in items.into_iter() {
                                    write_item(&mut nested_store, *item.unwrap(), &nested_path)?;
                                }

                                println!("Created branch at key: {}", key);
                                entry.insert(StoreNode::Branch(Box::new(nested_store)));
                                return Ok(());
                            }
                        }

                        println!("Write error: INVALID_VALUE, For key: {}", key);
                        return Err(WriteError::InvalidValue);
                    }

                    // This is a simple leaf node on this branch.
                    Value::Bytes(value) => {
                        // Validate the value.
                        if value.is_empty() {
                            println!("Write error: INVALID_VALUE, For key: {}", key);
                            return Err(WriteError::InvalidValue);
                        }

                        println!("Wrote key: {}, value: {:?}", key, from_utf8(&value).unwrap());
                        entry.insert(StoreNode::Leaf(Some(value)));
                    }
                },
            }
            Ok(())
        }
    }
}

/// Creates a new instance of the server. Each server has its own bespoke, per-connection instance
/// of the key-value store.
async fn run_server(stream: StoreRequestStream) -> Result<(), Error> {
    // Create a new in-memory key-value store. The store will live for the lifetime of the
    // connection between the server and this particular client.
    let store = RefCell::new(HashMap::<String, StoreNode>::new());

    // Serve all requests on the protocol sequentially - a new request is not handled until its
    // predecessor has been processed.
    stream
        .map(|result| result.context("failed request"))
        .try_for_each(|request| async {
            // Match based on the method being invoked.
            match request {
                StoreRequest::WriteItem { attempt, responder } => {
                    println!("WriteItem request received");

                    // The `responder` parameter is a special struct that manages the outgoing reply
                    // to this method call. Calling `send` on the responder exactly once will send
                    // the reply.
                    responder
                        .send(&mut write_item(&mut store.borrow_mut(), attempt, ""))
                        .context("error sending reply")?;
                    println!("WriteItem response sent");
                }
            }
            Ok(())
        })
        .await
}

// A helper enum that allows us to treat a `Store` service instance as a value.
enum IncomingService {
    Store(StoreRequestStream),
}

#[fuchsia::main]
async fn main() -> Result<(), Error> {
    println!("Started");

    // Add a discoverable instance of our `Store` protocol - this will allow the client to see the
    // server and connect to it.
    let mut fs = ServiceFs::new_local();
    fs.dir("svc").add_fidl_service(IncomingService::Store);
    fs.take_and_serve_directory_handle()?;
    println!("Listening for incoming connections");

    // The maximum number of concurrent clients that may be served by this process.
    const MAX_CONCURRENT: usize = 10;

    // Serve each connection simultaneously, up to the `MAX_CONCURRENT` limit.
    fs.for_each_concurrent(MAX_CONCURRENT, |IncomingService::Store(stream)| {
        run_server(stream).unwrap_or_else(|e| println!("{:?}", e))
    })
    .await;

    Ok(())
}

C++ (Natural)

Client

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): C++ (Natural) implementation.

Server

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): C++ (Natural) implementation.

C++ (Wire)

Client

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): C++ (Wire) implementation.

Server

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): C++ (Wire) implementation.

HLCPP

Client

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): HLCPP implementation.

Server

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): HLCPP implementation.

Adding support for iterating the store

A useful operation for key-value stores is in-order iteration: that is, when given a key, to return a (usually paginated) list of elements that appear after it, in order.

In FIDL, this is best done using an iterator, which is generally implemented as a separate protocol over which this iteration can occur. Using a separate protocol, and therefore a separate channel, has a number of benefits, including de-interleaving the iteration pull requests from other operations done over the main protocol.

The client and server side of the channel connection for protocol P can be represented as FIDL data types, as a client_end:P and server_end:P, respectively. These types are collectively known as protocol ends, and represent the other (non-@discoverable) way of connecting a FIDL client to its corresponding server: over an existing FIDL connection!

Protocol ends are specific instances of a general FIDL concept: the resource type. A resource type is intended to contain FIDL handles, which necessitates extra restrictions on how the type can be used. The type must be always be unique, as the underlying resource is mediated by some other capability manager (usually the Zircon kernel). Duplicating such a resource via a simple in-memory copy, without involving the manager, is impossible. To prevent such duplication, all resource types in FIDL are always move-only.

Finally, the Get() method of the Iterator protocol itself makes use of a size constraint on the return payload. This limits the amount of data that may be transmitted in a single pull, allowing for some measure of resource use control. It also creates a natural pagination boundary: rather than a giant dump of all of the results at once, the server only needs to prepare small batches at a time.

The FIDL, CML, and realm interface definitions are as follows:

FIDL

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
library examples.keyvaluestore.additerator;

/// An item in the store. The key must match the regex `^[A-z][A-z0-9_\.\/]{2,62}[A-z0-9]$`. That
/// is, it must start with a letter, end with a letter or number, contain only letters, numbers,
/// periods, and slashes, and be between 4 and 64 characters long.
type Item = struct {
    key string:128;
    value vector<byte>:64000;
};

/// An enumeration of things that may go wrong when trying to write a value to our store.
type WriteError = flexible enum {
    UNKNOWN = 0;
    INVALID_KEY = 1;
    INVALID_VALUE = 2;
    ALREADY_EXISTS = 3;
};

/// An enumeration of things that may go wrong when trying to create an iterator.
type IterateConnectionError = flexible enum {
    /// The starting key was not found.
    UNKNOWN_START_AT = 1;
};

/// A key-value store which supports insertion and iteration.
@discoverable
protocol Store {
    /// Writes an item to the store.
    WriteItem(struct {
        attempt Item;
    }) -> () error WriteError;

    /// Iterates over the items in the store, using lexicographic ordering over the keys.
    ///
    /// The [`iterator`] is [pipelined][pipelining] to the server, such that the client can
    /// immediately send requests over the new connection.
    ///
    /// [pipelining]: https://fuchsia.dev/fuchsia-src/development/api/fidl?hl=en#request-pipelining
    Iterate(resource struct {
        /// If present, requests to start the iteration at this item.
        starting_at string:<128, optional>;

        /// The [`Iterator`] server endpoint. The client creates both ends of the channel and
        /// retains the `client_end` locally to use for pulling iteration pages, while sending the
        /// `server_end` off to be fulfilled by the server.
        iterator server_end:Iterator;
    }) -> () error IterateConnectionError;
};

/// An iterator for the key-value store. Note that this protocol makes no guarantee of atomicity -
/// the values may change between pulls from the iterator. Unlike the `Store` protocol above, this
/// protocol is not `@discoverable`: it is not independently published by the component that
/// implements it, but rather must have one of its two protocol ends transmitted over an existing
/// FIDL connection.
///
/// As is often the case with iterators, the client indicates that they are done with an instance of
/// the iterator by simply closing their end of the connection.
protocol Iterator {
    /// Gets the next batch of keys.
    ///
    /// The client pulls keys rather than having the server proactively push them, to implement
    /// [flow control][flow-control] over the messages.
    ///
    /// [flow-control]:
    ///     https://fuchsia.dev/fuchsia-src/development/api/fidl?hl=en#prefer_pull_to_push
    Get() -> (struct {
        /// A list of keys. If the iterator has reached the end of iteration, the list will be
        /// empty. The client is expected to then close the connection.
        entries vector<string:128>:10;
    });
};

CML

Client

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
{
    include: [ "syslog/client.shard.cml" ],
    program: {
        runner: "elf",
        binary: "bin/client_bin",
    },
    use: [
        { protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.additerator.Store" },
    ],
    config: {
        write_items: {
            type: "vector",
            max_count: 16,
            element: {
                type: "string",
                max_size: 64,
            },
        },

        // A key to iterate from, after all items in `write_items` have been written.
        iterate_from: {
            type: "string",
            max_size: 64,
        },

    },
}

Server

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
{
    include: [ "syslog/client.shard.cml" ],
    program: {
        runner: "elf",
        binary: "bin/server_bin",
    },
    capabilities: [
        { protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.additerator.Store" },
    ],
    expose: [
        {
            protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.additerator.Store",
            from: "self",
        },
    ],
}

Realm

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
{
    children: [
        {
            name: "client",
            url: "#meta/client.cm",
        },
        {
            name: "server",
            url: "#meta/server.cm",
        },
    ],
    offer: [
        // Route the protocol under test from the server to the client.
        {
            protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.additerator.Store",
            from: "#server",
            to: "#client",
        },

        // Route logging support to all children.
        {
            protocol: "fuchsia.logger.LogSink",
            from: "parent",
            to: [
                "#client",
                "#server",
            ],
        },
    ],
}

Client and server implementations can then be written in any supported language:

Rust

Client

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

use {
    anyhow::{Context as _, Error},
    config::Config,
    fuchsia_component::client::connect_to_protocol,
    std::{thread, time},
};

use {
    fidl::endpoints::create_proxy,
    fidl_examples_keyvaluestore_additerator::{Item, IteratorMarker, StoreMarker},
    futures::join,
};

#[fuchsia::main]
async fn main() -> Result<(), Error> {
    println!("Started");

    // Load the structured config values passed to this component at startup.
    let config = Config::take_from_startup_handle();

    // Use the Component Framework runtime to connect to the newly spun up server component. We wrap
    // our retained client end in a proxy object that lets us asynchronously send `Store` requests
    // across the channel.
    let store = connect_to_protocol::<StoreMarker>()?;
    println!("Outgoing connection enabled");

    // This client's structured config has one parameter, a vector of strings. Each string is the
    // path to a resource file whose filename is a key and whose contents are a value. We iterate
    // over them and try to write each key-value pair to the remote store.
    for key in config.write_items.into_iter() {
        let path = format!("/pkg/data/{}.txt", key);
        let value = std::fs::read_to_string(path.clone())
            .with_context(|| format!("Failed to load {path}"))?;
        match store.write_item(&mut Item { key: key, value: value.into_bytes() }).await? {
            Ok(_) => println!("WriteItem Success"),
            Err(err) => println!("WriteItem Error: {}", err.into_primitive()),
        }
    }

    if !config.iterate_from.is_empty() {
        // This helper creates a channel, and returns two protocol ends: the `client_end` is already
        // conveniently bound to the correct FIDL protocol, `Iterator`, while the `server_end` is
        // unbound and ready to be sent over the wire.
        let (iterator, server_end) = create_proxy::<IteratorMarker>()?;

        // There is no need to wait for the iterator to connect before sending the first `Get()`
        // request - since we already hold the `client_end` of the connection, we can start queuing
        // requests on it immediately.
        let connect_to_iterator = store.iterate(Some(config.iterate_from.as_str()), server_end);
        let first_get = iterator.get();

        // Wait until both the connection and the first request resolve - an error in either case
        // triggers an immediate resolution of the combined future.
        let (connection, first_page) = join!(connect_to_iterator, first_get);

        // Handle any connection error. If this has occurred, it is impossible for the first `Get()`
        // call to have resolved successfully, so check this error first.
        if let Err(err) = connection.context("Could not connect to Iterator")? {
            println!("Iterator Connection Error: {}", err.into_primitive());
        } else {
            println!("Iterator Connection Success");

            // Consecutively repeat the `Get()` request if the previous response was not empty.
            let mut entries = first_page.context("Could not get page from Iterator")?;
            while !&entries.is_empty() {
                for entry in entries.iter() {
                    println!("Iterator Entry: {}", entry);
                }
                entries = iterator.get().await.context("Could not get page from Iterator")?;
            }
        }
    }

    // TODO(fxbug.dev/76579): We need to sleep here to make sure all logs get drained. Once the
    // referenced bug has been resolved, we can remove the sleep.
    thread::sleep(time::Duration::from_secs(2));
    Ok(())
}

Server

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

use {
    anyhow::{Context as _, Error},
    fuchsia_component::server::ServiceFs,
    futures::prelude::*,
    lazy_static::lazy_static,
    regex::Regex,
};

use {
    fidl_examples_keyvaluestore_additerator::{
        Item, IterateConnectionError, IteratorRequest, IteratorRequestStream, StoreRequest,
        StoreRequestStream, WriteError,
    },
    fuchsia_async as fasync,
    std::collections::btree_map::Entry,
    std::collections::BTreeMap,
    std::ops::Bound::*,
    std::sync::Arc,
    std::sync::Mutex,
};

lazy_static! {
    static ref KEY_VALIDATION_REGEX: Regex =
        Regex::new(r"^[A-Za-z]\w+[A-Za-z0-9]$").expect("Key validation regex failed to compile");
}

/// Handler for the `WriteItem` method.
fn write_item(store: &mut BTreeMap<String, Vec<u8>>, attempt: Item) -> Result<(), WriteError> {
    // Validate the key.
    if !KEY_VALIDATION_REGEX.is_match(attempt.key.as_str()) {
        println!("Write error: INVALID_KEY, For key: {}", attempt.key);
        return Err(WriteError::InvalidKey);
    }

    // Validate the value.
    if attempt.value.is_empty() {
        println!("Write error: INVALID_VALUE, For key: {}", attempt.key);
        return Err(WriteError::InvalidValue);
    }

    // Write to the store, validating that the key did not already exist.
    match store.entry(attempt.key) {
        Entry::Occupied(entry) => {
            println!("Write error: ALREADY_EXISTS, For key: {}", entry.key());
            Err(WriteError::AlreadyExists)
        }
        Entry::Vacant(entry) => {
            println!("Wrote value at key: {}", entry.key());
            entry.insert(attempt.value);
            Ok(())
        }
    }
}

/// Handler for the `Iterate` method, which deals with validating that the requested start position
/// exists, and then sets up the asynchronous side channel for the actual iteration to occur over.
fn iterate(
    store: Arc<Mutex<BTreeMap<String, Vec<u8>>>>,
    starting_at: Option<String>,
    stream: IteratorRequestStream,
) -> Result<(), IterateConnectionError> {
    // Validate that the starting key, if supplied, actually exists.
    if let Some(start_key) = starting_at.clone() {
        if !store.lock().unwrap().contains_key(&start_key) {
            return Err(IterateConnectionError::UnknownStartAt);
        }
    }

    // Spawn a detached task. This allows the method call to return while the iteration continues in
    // a separate, unawaited task.
    fasync::Task::spawn(async move {
        // Serve the iteration requests. Note that access to the underlying store is behind a
        // contended `Mutex`, meaning that the iteration is not atomic: page contents could shift,
        // change, or disappear entirely between `Get()` requests.
        stream
            .map(|result| result.context("failed request"))
            .try_fold(
                match starting_at {
                    Some(start_key) => Included(start_key),
                    None => Unbounded,
                },
                |mut lower_bound, request| async {
                    match request {
                        IteratorRequest::Get { responder } => {
                            println!("Iterator page request received");

                            // The `page_size` should be kept in sync with the size constraint on
                            // the iterator's response, as defined in the FIDL protocol.
                            static PAGE_SIZE: usize = 10;

                            // An iterator, beginning at `lower_bound` and tracking the pagination's
                            // progress through iteration as each page is pulled by a client-sent
                            // `Get()` request.
                            let held_store = store.lock().unwrap();
                            let mut entries = held_store.range((lower_bound.clone(), Unbounded));
                            let mut current_page = vec![];
                            for _ in 0..PAGE_SIZE {
                                match entries.next() {
                                    Some(entry) => {
                                        current_page.push(entry.0.clone());
                                    }
                                    None => break,
                                }
                            }

                            // Update the `lower_bound` - either inclusive of the next item in the
                            // iteration, or exclusive of the last seen item if the iteration has
                            // finished. This `lower_bound` will be passed to the next request
                            // handler as its starting point.
                            lower_bound = match entries.next() {
                                Some(next) => Included(next.0.clone()),
                                None => match current_page.last() {
                                    Some(tail) => Excluded(tail.clone()),
                                    None => lower_bound,
                                },
                            };

                            // Send the page. At the end of this scope, the `held_store` lock gets
                            // dropped, and therefore released.
                            responder
                                .send(&mut current_page.iter().map(String::as_str))
                                .context("error sending reply")?;
                            println!("Iterator page sent");
                        }
                    }
                    Ok(lower_bound)
                },
            )
            .await
            .ok();
    })
    .detach();

    Ok(())
}

/// Creates a new instance of the server. Each server has its own bespoke, per-connection instance
/// of the key-value store.
async fn run_server(stream: StoreRequestStream) -> Result<(), Error> {
    // Create a new in-memory key-value store. The store will live for the lifetime of the
    // connection between the server and this particular client.
    //
    // Note that we now use an `Arc<Mutex<BTreeMap>>`, replacing the previous `RefCell<HashMap>`.
    // The `BTreeMap` is used because we want an ordered map, to better facilitate iteration. The
    // `Arc<Mutex<...>>` is used because there are now multiple async tasks accessing the: one main
    // task which handles communication over the protocol, and one additional task per iterator
    // protocol. `Arc<Mutex<...>>` is the simplest way to synchronize concurrent access between
    // these racing tasks.
    let store = &Arc::new(Mutex::new(BTreeMap::<String, Vec<u8>>::new()));

    // Serve all requests on the protocol sequentially - a new request is not handled until its
    // predecessor has been processed.
    stream
        .map(|result| result.context("failed request"))
        .try_for_each(|request| async {
            // Match based on the method being invoked.
            match request {
                StoreRequest::WriteItem { attempt, responder } => {
                    println!("WriteItem request received");

                    // The `responder` parameter is a special struct that manages the outgoing reply
                    // to this method call. Calling `send` on the responder exactly once will send
                    // the reply.
                    responder
                        .send(&mut write_item(&mut store.clone().lock().unwrap(), attempt))
                        .context("error sending reply")?;
                    println!("WriteItem response sent");
                }
                StoreRequest::Iterate { starting_at, iterator, responder } => {
                    println!("Iterate request received");

                    // The `iterate` handler does a quick check to see that the request is valid,
                    // then spins up a separate worker task to serve the newly minted `Iterator`
                    // protocol instance, allowing this call to return immediately and continue the
                    // request stream with other work.
                    responder
                        .send(&mut iterate(store.clone(), starting_at, iterator.into_stream()?))
                        .context("error sending reply")?;
                    println!("Iterate response sent");
                } //
            }
            Ok(())
        })
        .await
}

// A helper enum that allows us to treat a `Store` service instance as a value.
enum IncomingService {
    Store(StoreRequestStream),
}

#[fuchsia::main]
async fn main() -> Result<(), Error> {
    println!("Started");

    // Add a discoverable instance of our `Store` protocol - this will allow the client to see the
    // server and connect to it.
    let mut fs = ServiceFs::new_local();
    fs.dir("svc").add_fidl_service(IncomingService::Store);
    fs.take_and_serve_directory_handle()?;
    println!("Listening for incoming connections");

    // The maximum number of concurrent clients that may be served by this process.
    const MAX_CONCURRENT: usize = 10;

    // Serve each connection simultaneously, up to the `MAX_CONCURRENT` limit.
    fs.for_each_concurrent(MAX_CONCURRENT, |IncomingService::Store(stream)| {
        run_server(stream).unwrap_or_else(|e| println!("{:?}", e))
    })
    .await;

    Ok(())
}

C++ (Natural)

Client

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): C++ (Natural) implementation.

Server

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): C++ (Natural) implementation.

C++ (Wire)

Client

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): C++ (Wire) implementation.

Server

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): C++ (Wire) implementation.

HLCPP

Client

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): HLCPP implementation.

Server

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): HLCPP implementation.

Enabling exporting backups

A simple way to extend the key-value store to support exporting backups would be to simply add a new method that stops the world, serializes the state of the store, and sends it back as a FIDL vector<Item>. There are two downsides to this approach, however. The first is that it puts all of the burden of the backup on the server - a client pays nothing to ask for a backup operation that is very expensive to the server. The second is that it involves a great deal of copying: the client is almost certainly just going to write the resulting backup to some backing datastore, like a file or a database, as soon as it receives it. Having it decode this (potentially very large) FIDL object, just so that it can immediately re-encode it as it forwards it to whatever protocol will do the actual storage, is very wasteful.

A better solution is to use zircon's virtual memory objects. Instead of constantly copying bytes back and forth in a bucket brigade, we can mint a VMO to hold the backup data on the client, send it to the server, then forward it back to our target data store without deserializing in between. As long as the target data store's protocol has allowances for accepting data transported using a VMO, this is the preferred way to accomplish expensive operations like this. In fact, Fuchsia's file system, for instance, implements this exact pattern. A benefit of this approach is that it forces the client to do some work when asking the server for an expensive operation, minimizing the work imbalance between the two parties.

FIDL value types can be persisted to any byte-oriented storage medium, using the FIDL data persistence binary format. We will persist the newly introduced FIDL type Exportable into the VMO. The object will be encoded and written to the storage (in this case, a VMO that could later be saved as a file), and decoded from it when the data needs to be accessed again, in much the same way that a message is encoded, transported, and decoded again later when using FIDL over IPC.

To do this securely and adhere to the principle of least privilege, we should constrain the privileges the handle representing our VMO may carry. Enter handle rights, FIDL's first-class method of describing the privileges available to a particular handle type. In this case, we allow the empty VMO passed to the server in the Export request to be read from, queried for size, resized, and written to. When the VMO is returned, we remove right to resize and write, ensuring that no process, not even malicious actors in some far away component, can modify this data as it moves through the system.

The FIDL, CML, and realm interface definitions are as follows:

FIDL

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
library examples.keyvaluestore.supportexports;

using zx;

/// An item in the store. The key must match the regex `^[A-z][A-z0-9_\.\/]{2,62}[A-z0-9]$`. That
/// is, it must start with a letter, end with a letter or number, contain only letters, numbers,
/// periods, and slashes, and be between 4 and 64 characters long.
type Item = struct {
    key string:128;
    value vector<byte>:64000;
};

/// An enumeration of things that may go wrong when trying to write a value to our store.
type WriteError = flexible enum {
    UNKNOWN = 0;
    INVALID_KEY = 1;
    INVALID_VALUE = 2;
    ALREADY_EXISTS = 3;
};

/// An enumeration of things that may go wrong when trying to mint an export.
type ExportError = flexible enum {
    UNKNOWN = 0;
    EMPTY = 1;
    STORAGE_TOO_SMALL = 2;
};

// A data type describing the structure of a single export. We never actually send this data type
// over the wire (we use the file's VMO instead), but whenever data needs to be written to/read from
// its backing storage as persistent FIDL, it will have this schema.
///
/// The items should be sorted in ascending order, following lexicographic ordering of their keys.
type Exportable = table {
    1: items vector<Item>;
};

/// A very basic key-value store - so basic, in fact, that one may only write to it, never read!
@discoverable
protocol Store {
    /// Writes an item to the store.
    WriteItem(struct {
        attempt Item;
    }) -> () error WriteError;

    /// Exports the entire store as a persistent [`Exportable`] FIDL object into a VMO provided by
    /// the client.
    ///
    /// By having the client provide (and speculatively size) the VMO, we force the party requesting
    /// the relatively heavy load of generating a backup to acknowledge and bear some of the costs.
    ///
    /// This method operates by having the client supply an empty VMO, which the server then
    /// attempts to fill. Notice that the server removes the `zx.rights.WRITE` and
    /// `zx.rights.SET_PROPERTY` rights from the returned VMO - not even the requesting client may
    /// alter the backup once it has been minted by the server.
    Export(resource struct {
        /// Note that the empty VMO has more rights than the filled one being returned: it has
        /// `zx.rights.WRITE` (via `zx.RIGHTS_IO`) so that the VMO may be filled with exported data,
        /// and `zx.rights.SET_PROPERTY` (via `zx.RIGHTS_PROPERTY`) so that it may be resized to
        /// truncate any remaining empty buffer.
        empty zx.handle:<VMO, zx.RIGHTS_BASIC | zx.RIGHTS_PROPERTY | zx.RIGHTS_IO>;
    }) -> (resource struct {
        /// The `zx.rights.WRITE` and `zx.rights.SET_PROPERTY` rights have been removed from the now
        /// filled VMO. No one, not even the client that requested the export, is able to modify
        /// this VMO going forward.
        filled zx.handle:<VMO, zx.RIGHTS_BASIC | zx.rights.GET_PROPERTY | zx.rights.READ>;
    }) error ExportError;
};

CML

Client

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
{
    include: [ "syslog/client.shard.cml" ],
    program: {
        runner: "elf",
        binary: "bin/client_bin",
    },
    use: [
        { protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.supportexports.Store" },
    ],
    config: {
        write_items: {
            type: "vector",
            max_count: 16,
            element: {
                type: "string",
                max_size: 64,
            },
        },

        // The size, in bytes, allotted to the export VMO
        max_export_size: { type: "uint64" },

    },
}

Server

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
{
    include: [ "syslog/client.shard.cml" ],
    program: {
        runner: "elf",
        binary: "bin/server_bin",
    },
    capabilities: [
        { protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.supportexports.Store" },
    ],
    expose: [
        {
            protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.supportexports.Store",
            from: "self",
        },
    ],
}

Realm

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
{
    children: [
        {
            name: "client",
            url: "#meta/client.cm",
        },
        {
            name: "server",
            url: "#meta/server.cm",
        },
    ],
    offer: [
        // Route the protocol under test from the server to the client.
        {
            protocol: "examples.keyvaluestore.supportexports.Store",
            from: "#server",
            to: "#client",
        },

        // Route logging support to all children.
        {
            protocol: "fuchsia.logger.LogSink",
            from: "parent",
            to: [
                "#client",
                "#server",
            ],
        },
    ],
}

Client and server implementations can then be written in any supported language:

Rust

Client

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

use {
    anyhow::{Context as _, Error},
    config::Config,
    fuchsia_component::client::connect_to_protocol,
    std::{thread, time},
};

use {
    fidl::encoding::unpersist,
    fidl_examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::{Exportable, Item, StoreMarker},
    fuchsia_zircon::Vmo,
};

#[fuchsia::main]
async fn main() -> Result<(), Error> {
    println!("Started");

    // Load the structured config values passed to this component at startup.
    let config = Config::take_from_startup_handle();

    // Use the Component Framework runtime to connect to the newly spun up server component. We wrap
    // our retained client end in a proxy object that lets us asynchronously send `Store` requests
    // across the channel.
    let store = connect_to_protocol::<StoreMarker>()?;
    println!("Outgoing connection enabled");

    // This client's structured config has one parameter, a vector of strings. Each string is the
    // path to a resource file whose filename is a key and whose contents are a value. We iterate
    // over them and try to write each key-value pair to the remote store.
    for key in config.write_items.into_iter() {
        let path = format!("/pkg/data/{}.txt", key);
        let value = std::fs::read_to_string(path.clone())
            .with_context(|| format!("Failed to load {path}"))?;
        match store.write_item(&mut Item { key: key, value: value.into_bytes() }).await? {
            Ok(_) => println!("WriteItem Success"),
            Err(err) => println!("WriteItem Error: {}", err.into_primitive()),
        }
    }

    // If the `max_export_size` is 0, no export is possible, so just ignore this block. This check
    // isn't strictly necessary, but does avoid extra work down the line.
    if config.max_export_size > 0 {
        // Create a 100Kb VMO to store the resulting export. In a real implementation, we would
        // likely receive the VMO representing the to-be-written file from file system like vfs of
        // fxfs.
        let vmo = Vmo::create(config.max_export_size)?;

        // Send the VMO to the server, to be populated with the current state of the key-value
        // store.
        match store.export(vmo).await? {
            Err(err) => {
                println!("Export Error: {}", err.into_primitive());
            }
            Ok(output) => {
                println!("Export Success");

                // Read the exported data (encoded in byte form as persistent FIDL) from the
                // returned VMO. In a real implementation, instead of reading the VMO, we would
                // merely forward it to some other storage-handling process. Doing this using a VMO,
                // rather than FIDL IPC, would save us frivolous reads and writes at each hop.
                let content_size = output.get_content_size().unwrap();
                let mut encoded_bytes = vec![0; content_size as usize];
                output.read(&mut encoded_bytes, 0)?;

                // Decode the persistent FIDL that was just read from the file.
                let exportable = unpersist::<Exportable>(&encoded_bytes).unwrap();
                let items = exportable.items.expect("must always be set");

                // Log some information about the exported data.
                println!("Printing {} exported entries, which are:", items.len());
                for item in items.iter() {
                    println!("  * {}", item.key);
                }
            }
        };
    }

    // TODO(fxbug.dev/76579): We need to sleep here to make sure all logs get drained. Once the
    // referenced bug has been resolved, we can remove the sleep.
    thread::sleep(time::Duration::from_secs(2));
    Ok(())
}

Server

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

use {
    anyhow::{Context as _, Error},
    fuchsia_component::server::ServiceFs,
    futures::prelude::*,
    lazy_static::lazy_static,
    regex::Regex,
    std::cell::RefCell,
    std::collections::hash_map::Entry,
    std::collections::HashMap,
};

use {
    fidl::{encoding::persist, Vmo},
    fidl_examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::{
        ExportError, Exportable, Item, StoreRequest, StoreRequestStream, WriteError,
    },
};

lazy_static! {
    static ref KEY_VALIDATION_REGEX: Regex =
        Regex::new(r"^[A-Za-z]\w+[A-Za-z0-9]$").expect("Key validation regex failed to compile");
}

/// Handler for the `WriteItem` method.
fn write_item(store: &mut HashMap<String, Vec<u8>>, attempt: Item) -> Result<(), WriteError> {
    // Validate the key.
    if !KEY_VALIDATION_REGEX.is_match(attempt.key.as_str()) {
        println!("Write error: INVALID_KEY, For key: {}", attempt.key);
        return Err(WriteError::InvalidKey);
    }

    // Validate the value.
    if attempt.value.is_empty() {
        println!("Write error: INVALID_VALUE, For key: {}", attempt.key);
        return Err(WriteError::InvalidValue);
    }

    // Write to the store, validating that the key did not already exist.
    match store.entry(attempt.key) {
        Entry::Occupied(entry) => {
            println!("Write error: ALREADY_EXISTS, For key: {}", entry.key());
            Err(WriteError::AlreadyExists)
        }
        Entry::Vacant(entry) => {
            println!("Wrote value at key: {}", entry.key());
            entry.insert(attempt.value);
            Ok(())
        }
    }
}

/// Handler for the `Export` method.
fn export(store: &mut HashMap<String, Vec<u8>>, vmo: Vmo) -> Result<Vmo, ExportError> {
    // Empty stores cannot be exported.
    if store.is_empty() {
        return Err(ExportError::Empty);
    }

    // Build the `Exportable` vector locally. That means iterating over the map, and turning it into
    // a vector of items instead.
    let mut exportable = Exportable::EMPTY;
    let mut items = store
        .iter()
        .map(|entry| return Item { key: entry.0.clone(), value: entry.1.clone() })
        .collect::<Vec<Item>>();
    items.sort_by(|a, b| a.key.cmp(&b.key));
    exportable.items = Some(items);

    // Encode the bytes - there is a bug in persistent FIDL if this operation fails. Even if it
    // succeeds, make sure to check that the VMO has enough space to handle the encoded export data.
    let encoded_bytes = persist(&mut exportable).map_err(|_| ExportError::Unknown)?;
    if encoded_bytes.len() as u64 > vmo.get_content_size().map_err(|_| ExportError::Unknown)? {
        return Err(ExportError::StorageTooSmall);
    }

    // Write the (now encoded) persistent FIDL data to the VMO.
    vmo.set_content_size(&(encoded_bytes.len() as u64)).map_err(|_| ExportError::Unknown)?;
    vmo.write(&encoded_bytes, 0).map_err(|_| ExportError::Unknown)?;
    Ok(vmo)
}

/// Creates a new instance of the server. Each server has its own bespoke, per-connection instance
/// of the key-value store.
async fn run_server(stream: StoreRequestStream) -> Result<(), Error> {
    // Create a new in-memory key-value store. The store will live for the lifetime of the
    // connection between the server and this particular client.
    let store = RefCell::new(HashMap::<String, Vec<u8>>::new());

    // Serve all requests on the protocol sequentially - a new request is not handled until its
    // predecessor has been processed.
    stream
        .map(|result| result.context("failed request"))
        .try_for_each(|request| async {
            // Match based on the method being invoked.
            match request {
                StoreRequest::WriteItem { attempt, responder } => {
                    println!("WriteItem request received");

                    // The `responder` parameter is a special struct that manages the outgoing reply
                    // to this method call. Calling `send` on the responder exactly once will send
                    // the reply.
                    responder
                        .send(&mut write_item(&mut store.borrow_mut(), attempt))
                        .context("error sending reply")?;
                    println!("WriteItem response sent");
                }
                StoreRequest::Export { empty, responder } => {
                    println!("Export request received");

                    responder
                        .send(&mut export(&mut store.borrow_mut(), empty))
                        .context("error sending reply")?;
                    println!("Export response sent");
                } //
            }
            Ok(())
        })
        .await
}

// A helper enum that allows us to treat a `Store` service instance as a value.
enum IncomingService {
    Store(StoreRequestStream),
}

#[fuchsia::main]
async fn main() -> Result<(), Error> {
    println!("Started");

    // Add a discoverable instance of our `Store` protocol - this will allow the client to see the
    // server and connect to it.
    let mut fs = ServiceFs::new_local();
    fs.dir("svc").add_fidl_service(IncomingService::Store);
    fs.take_and_serve_directory_handle()?;
    println!("Listening for incoming connections");

    // The maximum number of concurrent clients that may be served by this process.
    const MAX_CONCURRENT: usize = 10;

    // Serve each connection simultaneously, up to the `MAX_CONCURRENT` limit.
    fs.for_each_concurrent(MAX_CONCURRENT, |IncomingService::Store(stream)| {
        run_server(stream).unwrap_or_else(|e| println!("{:?}", e))
    })
    .await;

    Ok(())
}

C++ (Natural)

Client

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

#include <fidl/examples.keyvaluestore.supportexports/cpp/fidl.h>
#include <lib/async-loop/cpp/loop.h>
#include <lib/component/incoming/cpp/service_client.h>
#include <lib/syslog/cpp/macros.h>
#include <unistd.h>

#include <examples/fidl/new/key_value_store/support_exports/cpp_natural/client/config.h>
#include <src/lib/files/file.h>
#include <src/lib/fxl/strings/string_printf.h>

int main(int argc, const char** argv) {
  FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Started";

  // Retrieve component configuration.
  auto conf = config::Config::TakeFromStartupHandle();

  // Start up an async loop and dispatcher.
  async::Loop loop(&kAsyncLoopConfigNeverAttachToThread);
  async_dispatcher_t* dispatcher = loop.dispatcher();

  // Connect to the protocol inside the component's namespace. This can fail so it's wrapped in a
  // |zx::result| and it must be checked for errors.
  zx::result client_end = component::Connect<examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Store>();
  if (!client_end.is_ok()) {
    FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Synchronous error when connecting to the |Store| protocol: "
                   << client_end.status_string();
    return -1;
  }

  // Create an asynchronous client using the newly-established connection.
  fidl::Client client(std::move(*client_end), dispatcher);
  FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Outgoing connection enabled";

  for (const auto& action : conf.write_items()) {
    std::string text;
    if (!files::ReadFileToString(fxl::StringPrintf("/pkg/data/%s.txt", action.c_str()), &text)) {
      FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "It looks like the correct `resource` dependency has not been packaged";
      break;
    }

    auto value = std::vector<uint8_t>(text.begin(), text.end());
    client->WriteItem(examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Item(action, value))
        .ThenExactlyOnce(
            [&](fidl::Result<examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Store::WriteItem> result) {
              // Check if the FIDL call succeeded or not.
              if (!result.is_ok()) {
                if (result.error_value().is_framework_error()) {
                  FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Unexpected FIDL framework error: " << result.error_value();
                } else {
                  FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem Error: "
                                << fidl::ToUnderlying(result.error_value().domain_error());
                }
              } else {
                FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem Success";
              }

              // Quit the loop, thereby handing control back to the outer loop of actions being
              // iterated over.
              loop.Quit();
            });

    // Run the loop until the callback is resolved, at which point we can continue from here.
    loop.Run();
    loop.ResetQuit();
  }

  // If the `max_export_size` is 0, no export is possible, so just ignore this block. This check
  // isn't strictly necessary, but does avoid extra work down the line.
  if (conf.max_export_size() > 0) {
    // Create a 100Kb VMO to store the resulting export. In a real implementation, we would
    // likely receive the VMO representing the to-be-written file from file system like vfs of
    // fxfs.
    zx::vmo vmo;
    if (zx_status_t status = zx::vmo::create(conf.max_export_size(), 0, &vmo); status != ZX_OK) {
      FX_PLOGS(ERROR, status) << "Failed to create VMO";
      return -1;
    }

    client->Export({std::move(vmo)})
        .ThenExactlyOnce(
            [&](fidl::Result<examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Store::Export>& result) {
              // Quit the loop, thereby handing control back to the outer loop of actions being
              // iterated over, when we return from this callback.
              loop.Quit();

              if (!result.is_ok()) {
                if (result.error_value().is_framework_error()) {
                  FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Unexpected FIDL framework error: " << result.error_value();
                } else {
                  FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Export Error: "
                                << fidl::ToUnderlying(result.error_value().domain_error());
                }
                return;
              }

              FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Export Success";
              // Read the exported data (encoded in byte form as persistent FIDL) from the
              // returned VMO. In a real implementation, instead of reading the VMO, we would
              // merely forward it to some other storage-handling process. Doing this using a VMO,
              // rather than FIDL IPC, would save us frivolous reads and writes at each hop.
              size_t content_size = 0;
              zx::vmo vmo = std::move(result->filled());
              if (vmo.get_prop_content_size(&content_size) != ZX_OK) {
                return;
              }
              std::vector<uint8_t> encoded_bytes;
              encoded_bytes.resize(content_size);
              if (vmo.read(encoded_bytes.data(), 0, content_size) != ZX_OK) {
                return;
              }
              // Decode the persistent FIDL that was just read from the file.
              fit::result exportable =
                  fidl::Unpersist<examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Exportable>(
                      cpp20::span(encoded_bytes));
              if (exportable.is_error()) {
                FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Failed to unpersist: " << exportable.error_value();
                return;
              }
              if (!exportable->items().has_value()) {
                FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Expected items to be set";
                return;
              }
              auto& items = exportable->items().value();

              // Log some information about the exported data.
              FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Printing " << items.size() << " exported entries, which are:";
              for (const auto& item : items) {
                FX_LOGS(INFO) << "  * " << item.key();
              }
            });

    // Run the loop until the callback is resolved, at which point we can continue from here.
    loop.Run();
    loop.ResetQuit();
  }

  // TODO(fxbug.dev/76579): We need to sleep here to make sure all logs get drained. Once the
  // referenced bug has been resolved, we can remove the sleep.
  sleep(2);
  return 0;
}

Server

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

#include <fidl/examples.keyvaluestore.supportexports/cpp/fidl.h>
#include <lib/async-loop/cpp/loop.h>
#include <lib/async/cpp/task.h>
#include <lib/fidl/cpp/wire/channel.h>
#include <lib/sys/component/cpp/outgoing_directory.h>
#include <lib/syslog/cpp/macros.h>
#include <unistd.h>

#include <algorithm>

#include <re2/re2.h>

// An implementation of the |Store| protocol.
class StoreImpl final : public fidl::Server<examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Store> {
 public:
  // Bind this implementation to a channel.
  StoreImpl(async_dispatcher_t* dispatcher,
            fidl::ServerEnd<examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Store> server_end)
      : binding_(fidl::BindServer(
            dispatcher, std::move(server_end), this,
            [this](StoreImpl* impl, fidl::UnbindInfo info,
                   fidl::ServerEnd<examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Store> server_end) {
              if (info.reason() != ::fidl::Reason::kPeerClosed) {
                FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Shutdown unexpectedly";
              }
              delete this;
            })) {}

  void WriteItem(WriteItemRequest& request, WriteItemCompleter::Sync& completer) override {
    FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem request received";
    auto key = request.attempt().key();
    auto value = request.attempt().value();

    // Validate the key.
    if (!RE2::FullMatch(key, "^[A-Za-z]\\w+[A-Za-z0-9]$")) {
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Write error: INVALID_KEY, For key: " << key;
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem response sent";
      return completer.Reply(
          fit::error(examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::WriteError::kInvalidKey));
    }

    // Validate the value.
    if (value.empty()) {
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Write error: INVALID_VALUE, For key: " << key;
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem response sent";
      return completer.Reply(
          fit::error(examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::WriteError::kInvalidValue));
    }

    if (key_value_store_.find(key) != key_value_store_.end()) {
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Write error: ALREADY_EXISTS, For key: " << key;
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem response sent";
      return completer.Reply(
          fit::error(examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::WriteError::kAlreadyExists));
    }

    // Ensure that the value does not already exist in the store.
    key_value_store_.insert({key, value});
    FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Wrote value at key: " << key;
    FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem response sent";
    return completer.Reply(fit::ok());
  }

  void Export(ExportRequest& request, ExportCompleter::Sync& completer) override {
    FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Export request received";
    completer.Reply(Export(std::move(request.empty())));
    FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Export response sent";
  }

 private:
  using ExportError = ::examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::ExportError;
  using Exportable = ::examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Exportable;
  using Item = ::examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Item;

  fit::result<ExportError, zx::vmo> Export(zx::vmo vmo) {
    if (key_value_store_.empty()) {
      return fit::error(ExportError::kEmpty);
    }
    Exportable exportable;
    std::vector<Item> items;
    items.reserve(key_value_store_.size());
    for (const auto& [k, v] : key_value_store_) {
      items.push_back(Item{{.key = k, .value = v}});
    }
    std::sort(items.begin(), items.end(),
              [](const Item& a, const Item& b) { return a.key() < b.key(); });
    exportable.items(std::move(items));
    fit::result encoded = fidl::Persist(exportable);
    if (encoded.is_error()) {
      FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Failed to encode in persistence convention: " << encoded.error_value();
      return fit::error(ExportError::kUnknown);
    }
    size_t content_size = 0;
    if (vmo.get_prop_content_size(&content_size) != ZX_OK) {
      return fit::error(ExportError::kUnknown);
    }
    if (encoded->size() > content_size) {
      return fit::error(ExportError::kStorageTooSmall);
    }
    if (vmo.set_prop_content_size(encoded->size()) != ZX_OK) {
      return fit::error(ExportError::kUnknown);
    }
    if (vmo.write(encoded->data(), 0, encoded->size()) != ZX_OK) {
      return fit::error(ExportError::kUnknown);
    }
    return fit::ok(std::move(vmo));
  }

  fidl::ServerBindingRef<examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Store> binding_;

  // The map that serves as the per-connection instance of the key-value store.
  std::unordered_map<std::string, std::vector<uint8_t>> key_value_store_ = {};
};

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
  FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Started";

  // The event loop is used to asynchronously listen for incoming connections and requests from the
  // client. The following initializes the loop, and obtains the dispatcher, which will be used when
  // binding the server implementation to a channel.
  async::Loop loop(&kAsyncLoopConfigNeverAttachToThread);
  async_dispatcher_t* dispatcher = loop.dispatcher();

  // Create an |OutgoingDirectory| instance.
  //
  // The |component::OutgoingDirectory| class serves the outgoing directory for our component. This
  // directory is where the outgoing FIDL protocols are installed so that they can be provided to
  // other components.
  component::OutgoingDirectory outgoing = component::OutgoingDirectory::Create(dispatcher);

  // The `ServeFromStartupInfo()` function sets up the outgoing directory with the startup handle.
  // The startup handle is a handle provided to every component by the system, so that they can
  // serve capabilities (e.g. FIDL protocols) to other components.
  zx::result result = outgoing.ServeFromStartupInfo();
  if (result.is_error()) {
    FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Failed to serve outgoing directory: " << result.status_string();
    return -1;
  }

  // Register a handler for components trying to connect to |Store|.
  result = outgoing.AddProtocol<examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Store>(
      [dispatcher](fidl::ServerEnd<examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Store> server_end) {
        // Create an instance of our StoreImpl that destroys itself when the connection closes.
        new StoreImpl(dispatcher, std::move(server_end));
      });
  if (result.is_error()) {
    FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Failed to add Store protocol: " << result.status_string();
    return -1;
  }

  // Everything is wired up. Sit back and run the loop until an incoming connection wakes us up.
  FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Listening for incoming connections";
  loop.Run();
  return 0;
}

C++ (Wire)

Client

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

#include <fidl/examples.keyvaluestore.supportexports/cpp/wire.h>
#include <lib/async-loop/cpp/loop.h>
#include <lib/component/incoming/cpp/service_client.h>
#include <lib/syslog/cpp/macros.h>
#include <unistd.h>

#include <examples/fidl/new/key_value_store/support_exports/cpp_wire/client/config.h>
#include <src/lib/files/file.h>
#include <src/lib/fxl/strings/string_printf.h>

int main(int argc, const char** argv) {
  FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Started";

  // Retrieve component configuration.
  auto conf = config::Config::TakeFromStartupHandle();

  // Start up an async loop and dispatcher.
  async::Loop loop(&kAsyncLoopConfigNeverAttachToThread);
  async_dispatcher_t* dispatcher = loop.dispatcher();

  // Connect to the protocol inside the component's namespace. This can fail so it's wrapped in a
  // |zx::result| and it must be checked for errors.
  zx::result client_end = component::Connect<examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Store>();
  if (!client_end.is_ok()) {
    FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Synchronous error when connecting to the |Store| protocol: "
                   << client_end.status_string();
    return -1;
  }

  // Create an asynchronous client using the newly-established connection.
  fidl::WireClient client(std::move(*client_end), dispatcher);
  FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Outgoing connection enabled";

  for (const auto& key : conf.write_items()) {
    std::string text;
    if (!files::ReadFileToString(fxl::StringPrintf("/pkg/data/%s.txt", key.c_str()), &text)) {
      FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "It looks like the correct `resource` dependency has not been packaged";
      break;
    }

    auto value = std::vector<uint8_t>(text.begin(), text.end());
    client
        ->WriteItem(
            {fidl::StringView::FromExternal(key), fidl::VectorView<uint8_t>::FromExternal(value)})
        .ThenExactlyOnce(
            [&](fidl::WireUnownedResult<examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Store::WriteItem>&
                    result) {
              if (!result.ok()) {
                FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Unexpected framework error";
              } else if (result->is_error()) {
                FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem Error: " << fidl::ToUnderlying(result->error_value());
              } else {
                FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem Success";
              }

              // Quit the loop, thereby handing control back to the outer loop of actions being
              // iterated over.
              loop.Quit();
            });

    // Run the loop until the callback is resolved, at which point we can continue from here.
    loop.Run();
    loop.ResetQuit();
  }

  // If the `max_export_size` is 0, no export is possible, so just ignore this block. This check
  // isn't strictly necessary, but does avoid extra work down the line.
  if (conf.max_export_size() > 0) {
    // Create a 100Kb VMO to store the resulting export. In a real implementation, we would
    // likely receive the VMO representing the to-be-written file from file system like vfs of
    // fxfs.
    zx::vmo vmo;
    if (zx_status_t status = zx::vmo::create(conf.max_export_size(), 0, &vmo); status != ZX_OK) {
      FX_PLOGS(ERROR, status) << "Failed to create VMO";
      return -1;
    }

    client->Export(std::move(vmo))
        .ThenExactlyOnce(
            [&](fidl::WireUnownedResult<examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Store::Export>&
                    result) {
              // Quit the loop, thereby handing control back to the outer loop of actions being
              // iterated over, when we return from this callback.
              loop.Quit();

              if (!result.ok()) {
                FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Unexpected FIDL framework error: " << result.error();
                return;
              }

              if (!result->is_ok()) {
                FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Export Error: " << fidl::ToUnderlying(result->error_value());
                return;
              }

              FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Export Success";
              // Read the exported data (encoded in byte form as persistent FIDL) from the
              // returned VMO. In a real implementation, instead of reading the VMO, we would
              // merely forward it to some other storage-handling process. Doing this using a VMO,
              // rather than FIDL IPC, would save us frivolous reads and writes at each hop.
              size_t content_size = 0;
              zx::vmo vmo = std::move(result->value()->filled);
              if (vmo.get_prop_content_size(&content_size) != ZX_OK) {
                return;
              }
              std::vector<uint8_t> encoded_bytes;
              encoded_bytes.resize(content_size);
              if (vmo.read(encoded_bytes.data(), 0, content_size) != ZX_OK) {
                return;
              }
              // Decode the persistent FIDL that was just read from the file.
              fit::result exportable =
                  fidl::InplaceUnpersist<examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::wire::Exportable>(
                      cpp20::span(encoded_bytes));
              if (exportable.is_error()) {
                FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Failed to unpersist: " << exportable.error_value();
                return;
              }
              if (!exportable->has_items()) {
                FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Expected items to be set";
                return;
              }
              auto& items = exportable->items();

              // Log some information about the exported data.
              FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Printing " << items.count() << " exported entries, which are:";
              for (const auto& item : items) {
                FX_LOGS(INFO) << "  * " << item.key.get();
              }
            });

    // Run the loop until the callback is resolved, at which point we can continue from here.
    loop.Run();
    loop.ResetQuit();
  }

  // TODO(fxbug.dev/76579): We need to sleep here to make sure all logs get drained. Once the
  // referenced bug has been resolved, we can remove the sleep.
  sleep(2);
  return 0;
}

Server

// Copyright 2022 The Fuchsia Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

#include <fidl/examples.keyvaluestore.supportexports/cpp/wire.h>
#include <lib/async-loop/cpp/loop.h>
#include <lib/async/cpp/task.h>
#include <lib/fidl/cpp/wire/channel.h>
#include <lib/sys/component/cpp/outgoing_directory.h>
#include <lib/syslog/cpp/macros.h>
#include <unistd.h>

#include <algorithm>

#include <re2/re2.h>

// An implementation of the |Store| protocol.
class StoreImpl final : public fidl::WireServer<examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Store> {
 public:
  // Bind this implementation to a channel.
  StoreImpl(async_dispatcher_t* dispatcher,
            fidl::ServerEnd<examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Store> server_end)
      : binding_(fidl::BindServer(
            dispatcher, std::move(server_end), this,
            [this](StoreImpl* impl, fidl::UnbindInfo info,
                   fidl::ServerEnd<examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Store> server_end) {
              if (info.reason() != ::fidl::Reason::kPeerClosed) {
                FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Shutdown unexpectedly";
              }
              delete this;
            })) {}

  void WriteItem(WriteItemRequestView request, WriteItemCompleter::Sync& completer) override {
    FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem request received";
    std::string key{request->attempt.key.get()};
    std::vector<uint8_t> value{request->attempt.value.begin(), request->attempt.value.end()};

    // Validate the key.
    if (!RE2::FullMatch(key, "^[A-Za-z]\\w+[A-Za-z0-9]$")) {
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Write error: INVALID_KEY, For key: " << key;
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem response sent";
      return completer.Reply(
          fit::error(examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::WriteError::kInvalidKey));
    }

    // Validate the value.
    if (value.empty()) {
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Write error: INVALID_VALUE, For key: " << key;
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem response sent";
      return completer.Reply(
          fit::error(examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::WriteError::kInvalidValue));
    }

    if (key_value_store_.find(key) != key_value_store_.end()) {
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Write error: ALREADY_EXISTS, For key: " << key;
      FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem response sent";
      return completer.Reply(
          fit::error(examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::WriteError::kAlreadyExists));
    }

    // Ensure that the value does not already exist in the store.
    key_value_store_.insert({key, value});
    FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Wrote value at key: " << key;
    FX_LOGS(INFO) << "WriteItem response sent";
    return completer.Reply(fit::success());
  }

  void Export(ExportRequestView request, ExportCompleter::Sync& completer) override {
    FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Export request received";
    fit::result result = Export(std::move(request->empty));
    if (result.is_ok()) {
      completer.ReplySuccess(std::move(result.value()));
    } else {
      completer.ReplyError(result.error_value());
    }
    FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Export response sent";
  }

  using ExportError = ::examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::wire::ExportError;
  using Exportable = ::examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::wire::Exportable;
  using Item = ::examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::wire::Item;

  fit::result<ExportError, zx::vmo> Export(zx::vmo vmo) {
    if (key_value_store_.empty()) {
      return fit::error(ExportError::kEmpty);
    }
    fidl::Arena arena;
    fidl::VectorView<Item> items;
    items.Allocate(arena, key_value_store_.size());
    size_t count = 0;
    for (auto& [k, v] : key_value_store_) {
      // Create a wire |Item| object that borrows from |k| and |v|.
      // Since |k| and |v| are references into the long living |key_value_store_|,
      // while |items| only live within the current function scope,
      // this operation is safe.
      items[count] = Item{
          .key = fidl::StringView::FromExternal(k),
          .value = fidl::VectorView<uint8_t>::FromExternal(v),
      };
      count++;
    }
    std::sort(items.begin(), items.end(),
              [](const Item& a, const Item& b) { return a.key.get() < b.key.get(); });
    Exportable exportable = Exportable::Builder(arena).items(items).Build();
    fit::result encoded = fidl::Persist(exportable);
    if (encoded.is_error()) {
      FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Failed to encode in persistence convention: " << encoded.error_value();
      return fit::error(ExportError::kUnknown);
    }
    size_t content_size = 0;
    if (vmo.get_prop_content_size(&content_size) != ZX_OK) {
      return fit::error(ExportError::kUnknown);
    }
    if (encoded->size() > content_size) {
      return fit::error(ExportError::kStorageTooSmall);
    }
    if (vmo.set_prop_content_size(encoded->size()) != ZX_OK) {
      return fit::error(ExportError::kUnknown);
    }
    if (vmo.write(encoded->data(), 0, encoded->size()) != ZX_OK) {
      return fit::error(ExportError::kUnknown);
    }
    return fit::ok(std::move(vmo));
  }

 private:
  fidl::ServerBindingRef<examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Store> binding_;

  // The map that serves as the per-connection instance of the key-value store.
  //
  // Out-of-line references in wire types are always mutable. Thus the
  // |const std::vector<uint8_t>| from the baseline needs to be changed to
  // non-const as we're making a vector view pointing to it during |Export|,
  // even though in practice the value is never mutated.
  std::unordered_map<std::string, std::vector<uint8_t>> key_value_store_ = {};
};

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
  FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Started";

  // The event loop is used to asynchronously listen for incoming connections and requests from the
  // client. The following initializes the loop, and obtains the dispatcher, which will be used when
  // binding the server implementation to a channel.
  async::Loop loop(&kAsyncLoopConfigNeverAttachToThread);
  async_dispatcher_t* dispatcher = loop.dispatcher();

  // Create an |OutgoingDirectory| instance.
  //
  // The |component::OutgoingDirectory| class serves the outgoing directory for our component. This
  // directory is where the outgoing FIDL protocols are installed so that they can be provided to
  // other components.
  component::OutgoingDirectory outgoing = component::OutgoingDirectory::Create(dispatcher);

  // The `ServeFromStartupInfo()` function sets up the outgoing directory with the startup handle.
  // The startup handle is a handle provided to every component by the system, so that they can
  // serve capabilities (e.g. FIDL protocols) to other components.
  zx::result result = outgoing.ServeFromStartupInfo();
  if (result.is_error()) {
    FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Failed to serve outgoing directory: " << result.status_string();
    return -1;
  }

  // Register a handler for components trying to connect to |Store|.
  result = outgoing.AddProtocol<examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Store>(
      [dispatcher](fidl::ServerEnd<examples_keyvaluestore_supportexports::Store> server_end) {
        // Create an instance of our StoreImpl that destroys itself when the connection closes.
        new StoreImpl(dispatcher, std::move(server_end));
      });
  if (result.is_error()) {
    FX_LOGS(ERROR) << "Failed to add Store protocol: " << result.status_string();
    return -1;
  }

  // Everything is wired up. Sit back and run the loop until an incoming connection wakes us up.
  FX_LOGS(INFO) << "Listening for incoming connections";
  loop.Run();
  return 0;
}

HLCPP

Client

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): HLCPP implementation.

Server

// TODO(fxbug.dev/109277): HLCPP implementation.