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Building components

This document demonstrates how to build and test a component, highlighting best practices for defining packages, components, and their tests.

Concepts

You should understand the following concepts before building a component:

Packages are the unit of software distribution on Fuchsia. Packages are a collection of files with associated paths that are relative to the base of the package. For instance, a package might contain an ELF binary under the path bin/hello_world, and a JSON file under the path data/config.json. Grouping files into a package is required in order to push these files to the device.

Components are the unit of software execution on Fuchsia. All software on Fuchsia except for the kernel image and usermode bootstrap program is defined as a component.

A component is defined by a component manifest. Components typically include additional files, such as executables and data assets that they need at runtime.

Developers must define their software in terms of packages and components, whether for building production software or for writing their tests.

At runtime, Component instances see the contents of their package as read-only files under the path /pkg. Defining two or more components in the same package doesn't grant each component access to the other's capabilities. However it can guarantee to one component that the other is available. Therefore if a component attempts to launch an instance of another component, such as in an integration test, it can be beneficial to package both components together.

Components are instantiated in a few ways, all of which somehow specify their URL. Typically components are launched by specifying their package names and path to their component manifest in the package, using the fuchsia-pkg:// scheme.

GN templates

GN is the meta-build system used by Fuchsia. Fuchsia extends GN by defining templates. Templates provide a way to add to GN's built-in target types. This section reviews various GN templates that can be used to define packages, components, and their tests.

Defining components, packages, and tests using GN templates

Below is a hypothetical package containing one component that runs a C++ program and a data file. The example uses the following templates:

import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

executable("my_program") {
  sources = [ "my_program.cc" ]
}

fuchsia_component("my_component") {
  manifest = "meta/my_program.cmx"
  deps = [ ":my_program" ]
}

fuchsia_package("my_package") {
  deps = [ ":my_component" ]
}

The file my_program.cmx should include at least the following:

{
    "program": {
        "binary": "bin/my_program"
    }
}

Note the following details:

  • This example imports "//src/sys/build/components.gni". This single import includes all templates related to packages, components, and testing them.
  • This example defines an executable(), which is used to build a C++ program. This is for illustrative purposes - a component can launch all sorts of programs.
  • This example defines a fuchsia_component(), which depends on the executable(). The component definition attaches a manifest, which references the executable by its packaged path: bin/my_program. For more details on the packaged path, see finding paths for built executables.
  • The manifest must be either a .cmx file in cmx format or a .cml file in cml format.
  • The destination path for the manifest is not specified, but rather inferred from the component's name. In this example, the manifest path will be meta/my_component.cmx.
  • Both the component and package names are derived from their target names. They both take an optional component_name and package_name parameter respectively as an override.
    In the example above, these names come together to form the URL for launching the component: fuchsia-pkg://fuchsia.com/my_package#meta/my_component.cmx.

Language-specific component examples

Below you'll find basic examples for defining a package with a single component that launches a program in a variety of commonly used languages. The referenced source files and component manifest are assumed to be present in the specified paths.

C++

import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

executable("bin") {
  output_name = "my_program"
  sources = [ "main.cc" ]
}

fuchsia_component("my_component") {
  manifest = "meta/my_component.cmx"
  deps = [ ":bin" ]
}

fuchsia_package("my_package") {
  deps = [ ":my_component" ]
}

It's assumed that the file meta/my_component.cmx contains at least the following:

{
  "program": {
     "binary": "bin/my_program"
  }
}

Rust

import("//build/rust/rustc_binary.gni")
import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

rustc_binary("bin") {
  output_name = "my_program"
}

fuchsia_component("my_component") {
  manifest = "meta/my_component.cmx"
  deps = [ ":bin" ]
}

fuchsia_package("my_package") {
  deps = [ ":my_component" ]
}

It's assumed that the file meta/my_component.cmx contains at least the following:

{
  "program": {
     "binary": "bin/my_program"
  }
}

Go

import("//build/go/go_binary.gni")
import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

go_binary("bin") {
  output_name = "my_program"
}

fuchsia_component("my_component") {
  manifest = "meta/my_component.cmx"
  deps = [ ":bin" ]
}

fuchsia_package("my_package") {
  deps = [ ":my_component" ]
}

It's assumed that the file meta/my_component.cmx contains at least the following:

{
  "program": {
     "binary": "bin/my_program"
  }
}

Dart

import("//build/dart/dart_component.gni")
import("//build/dart/dart_library.gni")
import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

dart_library("lib") {
  package_name = "my_lib"
  sources = [ "main.dart" ]
}

dart_component("my_component") {
  manifest = "meta/my_component.cmx"
  deps = [ ":lib" ]
}

fuchsia_package("my_package") {
  deps = [ ":my_component" ]
}

It's assumed that the file meta/my_component.cmx contains at least the following:

{
  "program": {
     "data": "data/my_component"
  }
}

Flutter

import("//build/dart/dart_library.gni")
import("//build/flutter/flutter_component.gni")
import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

dart_library("lib") {
  package_name = "my_lib"
  sources = [ "main.dart" ]
}

flutter_component("my_component") {
  manifest = "meta/my_component.cmx"
  deps = [ ":lib" ]
}

fuchsia_package("my_package") {
  deps = [ ":my_component" ]
}

It's assumed that the file meta/my_component.cmx contains at least the following:

{
  "program": {
     "data": "data/my_component"
  }
}

Test packages

Test packages are packages that contain at least one component that is launched as a test. Test packages are defined using fuchsia_test_package.gni. This template can be used to define all sorts of tests, although it's most useful for integration tests -- tests where other components in addition to the test itself participate in the test. See below for templates that specialize in unit testing.

import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

executable("my_test") {
  sources = [ "my_test.cc" ]
  testonly = true
  deps = [
    "//src/lib/fxl/test:gtest_main",
    "//third_party/googletest:gtest",
  ]
}

fuchsia_component("my_test_component") {
  testonly = true
  manifest = "meta/my_test.cmx"
  deps = [ ":my_test" ]
}

executable("my_program_under_test") {
  sources = [ "my_program_under_test.cc" ]
}

fuchsia_component("my_other_component_under_test") {
  manifest = "meta/my_component_under_test.cmx"
  deps = [ ":my_program_under_test" ]
}

fuchsia_test_package("my_integration_test") {
  test_components = [ ":my_test_component" ]
  deps = [ ":my_other_component_under_test" ]
  test_specs = {
    environments = [ vim3_env ]
  }
}

group("tests") {
  deps = [ ":my_integration_test" ]
  testonly = true
}

Note the following details:

  • This example defines "my_test_component", which is assumed to implement a test. Commonly this is done using some testing framework such as C++ Googletest, Rust Cargo test, etc'.
  • To launch this test, you can use fx test.
  • The test is packaged with another component, "my_other_component_under_test". Presumably this component participates in the test. For instance, the component under test might implement a protocol, and the test launches it and connects to it as a client while asserting correct behavior from the client's perspective.
    Packaging the component under test together with the test component guarantees that the component under test is available for launch while the test is running, and built at the same version as the test. If this weren't the case, and instead the test assumed that the component under test was present in another package that's already installed on the target device, then the test would be exposed to side effects and version skew. Packaging the test with its dependencies makes it more hermetic.
  • Note the environments parameter. fuchsia_test_package() can optionally take test_spec.gni parameters to override the default testing behavior. In this example, this test is configured to run on VIM3 devices.
  • Finally, this example defines a group() to contain all the tests (which we have exactly one of). This is a recommended practice for organizing targets across the source tree.

An important limitation of fuchsia_test_package() is that any test_component targets must be defined in the same BUILD.gn file as the test package target. This is due to a limitation in GN.

It's possible to work around this limitation with an indirection through fuchsia_test(). In one BUILD.gn file, define:

# Let this be //foo/BUILD.gn
import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

executable("my_test") {
  sources = [ "my_test.cc" ]
  testonly = true
  deps = [
    "//src/lib/fxl/test:gtest_main",
    "//third_party/googletest:gtest",
  ]
}

fuchsia_component("my_test_component") {
  testonly = true
  manifest = "meta/my_test.cmx"
  deps = [ ":my_test" ]
}

fuchsia_test("my_test_component_test") {
  package = "//bar:my_test_package"
  component = ":my_test_component"
}

group("tests") {
  testonly = true
  deps = [ ":my_test_component_test" ]
}

Then elsewhere, you can add the fuchsia_component() target to the deps of a fuchsia_package() target.

# Let this be //bar/BUILD.gn
import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

fuchsia_package("my_test_package") {
  testonly = true
  deps = [ "//foo:my_test_component" ]
}

This is slightly more verbose but achieves the same outcome.

Dart and Flutter tests

Dart and Flutter tests differ slightly in that they need to be built with a flutter_test_component(), which collects all of the test mains into a single main invocation. The flutter_test_component() can then be used by the fuchsia_test_package().

import("//build/dart/dart_test_component.gni")
import("//build/flutter/flutter_test_component.gni")
import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

flutter_test_component("my_flutter_test_component") {
  testonly = true
  manifest = "meta/my_flutter_test_component.cmx"
  sources = [ "foo_flutter_test.dart" ]
}

dart_test_component("my_dart_test_component") {
  testonly = true
  manifest = "meta/my_dart_test_component.cmx"
  sources = [ "foo_dart_test.dart" ]
}

fuchsia_test("my_test_component_test") {
  test_components = [
    ":my_dart_test_component",
    ":my_flutter_test_component"
  ]
}

Unit tests

Since unit tests are very common, two simplified templates are provided:

  • fuchsia_unittest_component.gni defines a component to be run as a test, with the option to automatically generate a basic component manifest, that must then be included in a package.
  • fuchsia_unittest_package.gni defines a package with a single component to be run as a test, shorthand for a single fuchsia_unittest_component() target paired with a fuchsia_test_package().

Unit tests with manifests

The examples below demonstrate building a test executable and defining a package and component for the test.

C++

import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

executable("my_test") {
  sources = [ "test.cc" ]
  deps = [
    "//src/lib/fxl/test:gtest_main",
    "//third_party/googletest:gtest",
  ]
  testonly = true
}

fuchsia_unittest_package("my_test") {
  manifest = "meta/my_test.cmx"
  deps = [ ":my_test" ]
}

Rust

import("//build/rust/rustc_test.gni")
import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

rustc_test("my_test") {}

fuchsia_unittest_package("my_test") {
  manifest = "meta/my_test.cmx"
  deps = [ ":my_test" ]
}

Go

import("//build/go/go_test.gni")
import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

go_test("my_test") {}

fuchsia_unittest_package("my_test") {
  manifest = "meta/my_test.cmx"
  deps = [ ":my_test" ]
}

The manifest file meta/my_test.cmx may look like this:

{
    "program": {
        "binary": "bin/my_test"
    }
}

The above is a minimal valid manifest file for this test. In practice a test might require additional capabilities, to be specified in its manifest.

The launch URL for the test is fuchsia-pkg://fuchsia.com/my_test#meta/my_test.cmx. It can be launched using fx test followed by the launch URL, or followed by the GN target name.

Unit tests with generated manifests

The examples above specify a manifest for the test. However, it's possible for unit tests to not require any particular capabilities.

Below is an example for a test that performs ROT13 encryption and decryption. The algorithm under test is pure logic that can be tested in complete isolation. If we were to write a manifest for these tests, it would only contain the test binary to be executed. In such cases, we can simply specify the test executable path, and the template generates the trivial manifest for us.

C++

import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

executable("rot13_test") {
  sources = [ "rot13_test.cc" ]
  deps = [
    "//src/lib/fxl/test:gtest_main",
    "//third_party/googletest:gtest",
  ]
  testonly = true
}

fuchsia_unittest_package("rot13_test") {
  deps = [ ":rot13_test" ]
}

Rust

import("//build/rust/rustc_test.gni")
import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

rustc_test("rot13_test") {}

fuchsia_unittest_package("rot13_test") {
  deps = [ ":rot13_test" ]
}

Go

import("//build/go/go_test.gni")
import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

go_test("rot13_test") {}

fuchsia_unittest_package("rot13_test") {
  deps = [ ":rot13_test" ]
}

It's also possible to generate multiple unit test components and include them in a single package.

import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

fuchsia_unittest_component("rot13_encrypt_test") {
  ...
}

fuchsia_unittest_component("rot13_decrypt_test") {
  ...
}

fuchsia_test_package("rot13_tests") {
  test_components = [
    ":rot13_encrypt_test",
    ":rot13_decrypt_test",
  ]
}

The generated component manifest file can be found as follows:

fx gn outputs out/default unittest target_generated_manifest

To print it directly:

fx build && cat out/default/$(fx gn outputs out/default unittest target_generated_manifest)

Note that fx gn outputs prints an output path, but the file at the path may not exist or may be stale if you haven't built.

To launch the test:

# By launch URL
fx test fuchsia-pkg://fuchsia.com/rot13_test#meta/rot13_test.cmx
# By GN target name
fx test rot13_test

See also: fx test

You can generate a CFv2 test component by specifying:

import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

fuchsia_unittest_package("rot13_test") {
  v2 = true
  ...
}

Or:

import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

fuchsia_unittest_component("rot13_encrypt_test") {
  v2 = true
  ...
}

fuchsia_unittest_component("rot13_decrypt_test") {
  v2 = true
  ...
}

fuchsia_test_package("rot13_tests") {
  test_components = [
    ":rot13_encrypt_test",
    ":rot13_decrypt_test",
  ]
}

Multiple unit tests in a single package

The fuchsia_unittest_component() rule can be used instead of fuchsia_unittest_package() to include multiple components in a single fuchsia_test_package(). This can be useful to easily run all the test components in a single package, e.g. with fx test <package_name>, rather than needing to type many separate package names.

The example below creates a single test package rot13_tests that contains two separate test components, rot13_decoder_test and rot13_encoder_test. Both tests can be run using fx test rot13_tests, or individual tests can be run using either fx test rot13_decoder_test or the full URL fx test fuchsia-pkg://fuchsia.com/rot13_tests#meta/rot13_decoder_test.cmx.

C++

import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

executable("rot13_decoder_bin_test") {}

executable("rot13_encoder_bin_test") {}

fuchsia_unittest_component("rot13_decoder_test") {
  deps = [ ":rot13_decoder_bin_test" ]
}

fuchsia_unittest_component("rot13_encoder_test") {
  deps = [ ":rot13_encoder_bin_test" ]
}

fuchsia_test_package("rot13_tests") {
  test_components = [
    ":rot13_decoder_test",
    ":rot13_encoder_test",
  ]
}

Rust

import("//build/rust/rustc_test.gni")
import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

rustc_test("rot13_decoder_bin_test") {}

rustc_test("rot13_encoder_bin_test") {}

fuchsia_unittest_component("rot13_decoder_test") {
  deps = [ ":rot13_decoder_bin_test" ]
}

fuchsia_unittest_component("rot13_encoder_test") {
  deps = [ ":rot13_encoder_bin_test" ]
}

fuchsia_test_package("rot13_tests") {
  test_components = [
    ":rot13_decoder_test",
    ":rot13_encoder_test",
  ]
}

Go

import("//build/go/go_test.gni")
import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

go_test("rot13_decoder_test") {}

go_test("rot13_encoder_test") {}

fuchsia_unittest_component("rot13_decoder_test") {
  deps = [ ":rot13_decoder_bin_test" ]
}

fuchsia_unittest_component("rot13_encoder_test") {
  deps = [ ":rot13_encoder_bin_test" ]
}

fuchsia_test_package("rot13_tests") {
  test_components = [
    ":rot13_decoder_test",
    ":rot13_encoder_test",
  ]
}

Packages with a single component

Packages are units of distribution. It is beneficial to define multiple components in the same package if you need to guarantee that several components are always co-present, or if you'd like to be able to update several components at once (by updating a single package).

This pattern is also commonly used to create hermetic integration tests. For instance an integration test between two components where one is a client of a service implemented in another component would include both the client and server components.

However, you may often define a package that only requires a single component. In those cases, you can use the fuchsia_package_with_single_component() template as a convenience. This template fuses together fuchsia_package() and fuchsia_component().

C++

import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

executable("rot13_encoder_decoder") {
  sources = [ "rot13_encoder_decoder.cc" ]
}

fuchsia_package_with_single_component("rot13") {
  manifest = "meta/rot13.cmx"
  deps = [ ":rot13_encoder_decoder" ]
}

Rust

import("//build/rust/rustc_binary.gni")
import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

rustc_binary("rot13_encoder_decoder") {
}

fuchsia_package_with_single_component("rot13") {
  manifest = "meta/rot13.cmx"
  deps = [ ":rot13_encoder_decoder" ]
}

Go

import("//build/go/go_binary.gni")
import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

go_binary("rot13_encoder_decoder") {
}

fuchsia_component("rot13") {
  manifest = "meta/rot13.cmx"
  deps = [ ":rot13_encoder_decoder" ]
}

Test-driven development

The fx smoke-test command automatically detects all tests that are known to the build system as affected by changes in your checkout. Try the following:

fx -i smoke-test --verbose

In the command above, --verbose prints which tests fx smoke-test thinks are affected by your change, and -i automatically repeats this command every time you save your changes. For test-driven development, try launching this command in a separate shell and watching your code rebuild and retest as you're working on it.

fx smoke-test works best with hermetic test packages. A test package is hermetic if the package contains all the dependencies of any tests in it. That is to say, any code changes that affect the outcome of this test should require rebuilding that test's package as well.

Additional packaged resources

In the examples above we've demonstrated that a deps path from a package to a target that produces an executable ensures that the executable is included in the package.

Sometimes there is the need to include additional files. Below we demonstrate the use of the resource.gni template.

Example: fonts

import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

resource("roboto_family") {
  sources = [
    "Roboto-Black.ttf",
    "Roboto-Bold.ttf",
    "Roboto-Light.ttf",
    "Roboto-Medium.ttf",
    "Roboto-Regular.ttf",
    "Roboto-Thin.ttf",
  ]
  outputs = [ "data/fonts/{{source_file_part}}" ]
}

fuchsia_component("text_viewer") {
  ...
  deps = [
    ":roboto_family",
    ...
  ]
}

In the example above, six files are provided to be packaged under data/fonts/, producing the paths data/fonts/Roboto-Black.ttf, data/fonts/Roboto-Bold.ttf, etc'. The format for destination accepts GN source expansion placeholders.

Then, a text viewer component is defined to depend on the fonts. In this example, the text viewer implementation renders text with Roboto fonts. The component can read the given fonts in its sandbox under the path /pkg/data/fonts/....

Example: integration test with golden data

In this example we define a hypothetical service that minifies JSON files. The service is said to receive a buffer containing JSON text, and returns a buffer containing the same JSON data but with less whitespace. We present an integration test where a test component acts as the client of the minifier component, and compares the result for a given JSON file to be minified against a known good result (or a "golden file").

fuchsia_component("minifier_component") {
  ...
}

fuchsia_package("minifier_package") {
  ...
}

resource("testdata") {
  sources = [
    "testdata/input.json",
    "testdata/input_minified.json",
  ]
  outputs = [ "data/{{source_file_part}}" ]
}

fuchsia_component("minifier_test_client") {
  testonly = true
  deps = [
    ":testdata",
    ...
  ]
  ...
}

fuchsia_test_package("minifier_integration_test") {
  test_components = [ ":minifier_test_client" ]
  deps = [ ":minifier_component" ]
}

Note that we place the resource() dependency on the test component. From the build system's perspective the resource dependency could have been placed on the test package and the same outcome would have been produced by the build. However, it is a better practice to put dependencies on the targets that need them. This way we could reuse the same test component target in a different test package, for instance to test against a different minifier component, and the test component would work the same.

Component manifest includes

As shown above, component declarations have an associated component manifest. The component manifest supports "include" syntax, which allows referencing one or more files where additional contents for the component manifest may be merged from. This is conceptually similar for instance to #include directives in the C programming language. These included files are also known as component manifest shards.

Some dependencies, such as libraries, assume that dependent components have certain capabilities available to them at runtime. Practically this could mean that the code in question assumes that its dependents include a certain file in their component manifests. For instance, the C++ Syslog library makes such an assumption.

Target owners can declare that dependent components must include one or more files in their component manifest. For example we have the hypothetical file //sdk/lib/fonts/BUILD.gn below:

import("//tools/cmc/build/expect_includes.gni")

# Client library for components that want to use fonts
source_set("font_provider_client") {
  sources = [
    "font_provider_client.cc",
    ...
  ]
  deps = [
    ":font_provider_client_includes",
    ...
  ]
}

expect_includes("font_provider_client_includes") {
  includes = [
    "client.shard.cmx",
    "client.shard.cml",
  ]
}

It is possible (and recommended) to provide both .cmx and .cml includes. Dependent manifests are required to include the expected files with the matching extension.

.cmx

{
    "include": [
        "sdk/lib/fonts/client.shard.cmx"
    ]
    ...
}

.cml

{
    include: [
        "sdk/lib/fonts/client.shard.cml",
    ]
    ...
}

Include paths are resolved relative to the source root. Transitive includes (includes of includes) are allowed. Cycles are not allowed.

By convention, component manifest shard files are named with the suffix .shard.cmx or .shard.cml.

When naming your shards, don't repeat yourself in relation to the full path. In the example above it would have been repetitive to name the shard fonts.shard.cml because then the full path would have been sdk/lib/fonts/fonts.shard.cml, which is repetitive. Instead the file is named client.shard.cml, to indicate that it is to be used by clients of the SDK library for fonts.

Troubleshooting

Listing the contents of a package

Packages are described by a package manifest, which is a text file where every line follows this structure:

<packaged-path>=<source-file-path>

To find the package manifest for a fuchsia_package() or fuchsia_test_package() target, use the following command:

fx gn outputs out/default package target_manifest

The package target is a fully-qualified target name, i.e. in the form //path/to/your:target.

Combine this with another command to print the package manifest:

cat out/default/$(fx gn outputs out/default package target_manifest)

See also:

Finding paths for built executables

Executable programs can be built with various language-specific templates such as executable(), rustc_binary(), go_binary() etc'. These templates are responsible for specifying where in a package their output binaries should be included. The details vary by runtime and toolchain configuration.

  • Typically the path is bin/ followed by the target's name.
  • Typically if an output_name or name is specified, it overrides the target name.

Some rudimentary examples are given below:

C++

# Binary is packaged as `bin/rot13_encode`
executable("rot13_encode") {
  sources = [ "main.cc" ]
}

Rust

# Binary is packaged as `bin/rot13_encode`
rustc_binary("rot13_encode") {}

Go

# Binary is packaged as `bin/rot13_encode`
go_binary("rot13_encode") {}

In order to reference an executable in a component manifest, the author needs to know its packaged path.

One way to find the packaged path for an executable is to make sure that the target that builds the executable is in a package's deps, then follow listing the contents of a package. The executable is listed among the contents of the package.

Finding a component's launch URL

Component URLs follow this pattern:

fuchsia-pkg://fuchsia.com/<package-name>#meta/<component-name>.<extension>
  • <package-name>: specified as package_name on the package target, which defaults to the target name.
  • <component-name>: specified as component_name on the component target, which defaults to the target name.
  • <extension>: based on the component manifest - cmx for cmx files, cm for cml files.

Migrating from legacy build rules

The examples below demonstrate migration scenarios from the legacy package() template to the new fuchsia_package() & friends.

Simple package() example

This example is adapted from //src/sys/component_index/BUILD.gn.

Pre-migration

import("//build/config.gni")
import("//build/package.gni")                              # <1>
import("//build/rust/rustc_binary.gni")
import("//build/test/test_package.gni")                    # <1>

rustc_binary("component_index_bin") {                      # <2>
  name = "component_index"
  # Generate a ":bin_test" target for unit tests
  with_unit_tests = true
  edition = "2018"
  deps = [ ... ]
}

package("component_index") {                               # <3>
  deps = [ ":component_index_bin" ]

  binaries = [
    {
      name = "component_index"
    },
  ]

  meta = [
    {
      path = rebase_path("meta/component_index.cmx")       # <4>
      dest = "component_index.cmx"                         # <4>
    },
  ]

  resources = [ ... ]
}

test_package("component_index_tests") {                    # <5>
  deps = [ ":component_index_bin_test" ]

  tests = [
    {
      name = "component_index_bin_test"                    # <5>
      dest = "component_index_tests"                       # <5>
    },
  ]
}

Post-migration

import("//build/config.gni")
import("//build/rust/rustc_binary.gni")
import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")                   # <1>

rustc_binary("component_index_bin") {                      # <2>
  name = "component_index"
  # Generate a ":bin_test" target for unit tests
  with_unit_tests = true
  edition = "2018"
  deps = [ ... ]
}

fuchsia_package_with_single_component("component_index") { # <3>
  manifest = "meta/component_index.cmx"                    # <4>
  deps = [ ":component_index_bin" ]
}

fuchsia_unittest_package("component_index_tests") {        # <5>
  deps = [ ":component_index_bin_test" ]
}

The following key elements are called out in the code example above:

  1. Necessary imports are replaced by //src/sys/build/components.gni.
  2. Targets that generate executables or data files are not expected to change in a migration.
  3. The original package() declaration contains a single component manifest (listed under meta). The fuchsia_package_with_single_component() template can replace this, referencing the same manifest file.
  4. Under package(), the manifest is given a specific destination ("component_index.cmx") to place it in the final package. With the new templates, the manifest is renamed according to the target name. As a result, the launch URL for the component remains the same.
  5. For a simple test package that does not contain multiple test components, the fuchsia_unittest_package() template replaces test_package(). A basic test component manifest is automatically generated and meta/component_index_tests.cmx is no longer needed.

Complex package() example

This example is adapted from //src/fonts/BUILD.gn.

Pre-migration

import("//build/package.gni")                            # <1>
import("//build/rust/rustc_binary.gni")
import("//build/test/test_package.gni")                  # <1>
import("//src/fonts/build/fonts.gni")

rustc_binary("font_provider") {                          # <2>
  name = "font_provider"
  # Generate a ":bin_test" target for unit tests
  with_unit_tests = true
  edition = "2018"

  deps = [ ... ]
  sources = [ ... ]
}

package("pkg") {
  package_name = "fonts"

  deps = [ ":font_provider" ]

  binaries = [
    {
      name = "font_provider"
    },
  ]
  meta = [                                               # <3>
    {
      path = rebase_path("meta/fonts.cmx")               # <3>
      dest = "fonts.cmx"                                 # <4>
    },
    {
      path = rebase_path("meta/fonts.cml")               # <3>
      dest = "fonts.cm"                                  # <4>
    },
  ]
}

test_package("font_provider_unit_tests") {
  deps = [ ":font_provider_test" ]

  v2_tests = [
    {
      name = "font_provider_bin_test"                    # <4>
    },
  ]
}

Post-migration

import("//build/rust/rustc_binary.gni")
import("//src/fonts/build/fonts.gni")
import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")                 # <1>

rustc_binary("font_provider") {                          # <2>
  name = "font_provider"
  # Generate a ":bin_test" target for unit tests
  with_unit_tests = true
  edition = "2018"

  deps = [ ... ]
  sources = [ ... ]
}

fuchsia_component("font_provider_cm") {                  # <3>
  manifest = "meta/fonts.cml"
  component_name = "fonts"                               # <4>
  deps = [ ":font_provider" ]
}

fuchsia_component("font_provider_cmx") {                 # <3>
  manifest = "meta/fonts.cmx"
  component_name = "fonts"                               # <4>
  deps = [ ":font_provider" ]
}

fuchsia_package("pkg") {
  package_name = "fonts"
  deps = [
    ":font_provider_cm",                                 # <3>
    ":font_provider_cmx",                                # <3>
  ]
}

fuchsia_component("font_provider_unit_tests_cmp") {
  testonly = true
  manifest = "meta/font_provider_bin_test.cml"
  component_name = "font_provider_bin_test"              # <4>
  deps = [ ":font_provider_test" ]
}

fuchsia_test_package("font_provider_unit_tests") {
  test_components = [ ":font_provider_unit_tests_cmp" ]
}

The following key elements are called out in the code example above:

  1. Necessary imports are replaced by //src/sys/build/components.gni.
  2. Targets that generate executables or data files are not expected to change in a migration.
  3. If a package() includes multiple distinct components using the meta field, each one must be broken out into a separate fuchsia_component() and collected together in the fuchsia_package() using deps.
  4. Each fuchsia_component() uses the component_name field to map the manifest destination in the final package. Without this, they are placed according to the target name, which affects the launch URL of the component. This is true for both fuchsia_package() and fuchsia_test_package().

Test package considerations

The example below highlights some key differences between the legacy test_package() template and the new fuchsia_test_package().

Pre-migration

import("//build/package.gni")                            # <1>
import("//build/test/test_package.gni")                  # <1>

executable("foo_bin_test") { ... }

test_package("foo_tests") {                              # <1>
  deps = [ ":foo_bin_test" ]                             # <2>

  tests = [                                              # <3>
    {
      name = "foo_test"                                  # <2>
      log_settings = {
        max_severity = "ERROR"
      }
    }
  ]
}

Post-migration

import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")                 # <1>

executable("foo_bin_test") { ... }

fuchsia_component("foo_test") {                          # <2>
  testonly = true
  manifest = "meta/foo_test.cmx"
  deps = [ ":foo_bin_test" ]
}

fuchsia_test_package("foo_tests") {                      # <1>
  test_components = [ ":foo_test" ]                      # <2>

  test_specs = {                                         # <3>
    log_settings = {
      max_severity = "ERROR"
    }
  }
}

The following key elements are called out in the code example above:

  1. Replace necessary imports with //src/sys/build/components.gni and rename test_package() to fuchsia_test_package().
  2. Create a fuchsia_component() to encapsulate the test components previously added with the tests field. Reference the components in the package with the new test_components field.

  3. Both template families support test specifications, such as restricting to specific test environments or restricting log severity.

Remove legacy allowlist

The deprecated_package group in //build/BUILD.gn contains an allowlist of build files still using the legacy package() template. Once you have successfully migrated your build files to the new templates, remove the affected lines from the group. Removing the allowlist entries prevents future changes from re-introducing uses of the legacy templates.

For example, if you migrated the files under //src/fonts to the new templates, you would find and remove all the related files paths in //build/BUILD.gn:

group("deprecated_package") {
  ...
  visibility += [
    ...
    "//src/fonts/*",
    "//src/fonts/char_set/*",
    "//src/fonts/font_info/*",
    "//src/fonts/manifest/*",
    "//src/fonts/offset_string/*",
    "//src/fonts/tests/integration/*",
    "//src/fonts/tests/smoke/*",
    ...
  ]
}

Legacy features

The following special attributes are supported by the legacy package() template:

  • binaries
  • drivers
  • libraries
  • loadable_modules

These are used with special syntax, which determines how the files that certain targets produce are packaged. For instance the libraries attribute installs resources in a special lib/ directory, drivers are installed in drivers/, etc'. The legacy syntax looks like this:

package("my_driver_package") {
  deps = [ ":my_driver" ]

  drivers = [
    {
      name = "my_driver.so"
    },
  ]
}

This special treatment is not necessary with the new templates. Simply add the necessary target to deps = [ ... ] and the packaging is done automatically.

fuchsia_component("my_driver_component") {
  deps = [ ":my_driver" ]
  ...
}

fuchsia_package("my_driver_package") {
  deps = [ ":my_driver_component" ]
  ...
}

Additionally, legacy package() supports the resources attribute. This is replaced by adding a dependency on a resource() target. See also:

Renaming files

The legacy package() template allowed developers to rename certain files that are included in their package. For example, below we see an executable being built and then renamed before it's packaged so that it's packaged under the path bin/foo_bin.

import("//build/package.gni")

executable("bin") {
  ...
}

package("foo_pkg") {
  deps = [ ":bin" ]
  binaries = [
    {
      name = "bin"
      dest = "foo_bin"
    }
  ]
  meta = [
    {
      path = "meta/foo_bin.cmx"
      dest = "foo.cmx"
    }
  ]
}

The new templates allow targets that produce files, such as executable() above, to decide which files they produce and where they're placed. This is important because some targets produce multiple files, or might produce different files based on the build configuration (for instance if building for a different target architecture). In order to control the paths of packaged files, developers should work with the templates for the targets that produce those files. For instance:

import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

executable("bin") {
  output_name = "foo_bin"
  ...
}

fuchsia_component("foo_cmp") {
  deps = [ ":bin" ]
  manifest = "meta/foo_bin.cmx"
}

fuchsia_package("foo_pkg") {
  deps = [ ":foo_cmp" ]
}

Shell binaries

The legacy package() template allowed developers to make a particular binary in the package available to fx shell.

import("//build/package.gni")

# `fx shell echo Hello World` prints "Hello World"
executable("bin") {
  output_name = "echo"
  ...
}

package("echo") {
  binaries = [
    {
      name = "echo"
      dest = "echo"
      shell = true
    }
  ]
  deps = [ ":bin" ]
}

The new templates support this feature as follows:

import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

# `fx shell echo Hello World` prints "Hello World"
executable("bin") {
  output_name = "echo"
  ...
}

fuchsia_shell_package("echo") {
  deps = [ ":bin" ]
}

Note that in the package() example the binary is explicitly named "echo", which is the same name that's used for its intrinsic name (output_name = "echo"). The new templates don't have this renaming behavior, and instead let the target that produces the binary (executable() in this case) decide the file name, as determined by the output_name specified (or the executable target's name if output_name isn't specified).

This feature was left out intentionally. Moving forward the use of legacy shell tools is discouraged.

Go grand_unified_binary

"Grand unified binary" (GUB) is a single binary that merges together multiple Go programs. The entry point to the combined program can identify which sub-program the caller intends to run based on the filename of the invocation (argv[0]). Therefore in order to include GUB in your package and invoke a sub-program the common practice is to rename the binary.

The legacy package() template allowed developers to accomplish this as shown below:

import("//build/go/go_library.gni")
import("//build/package.gni")

go_library("my_tool") {
  ...
}

package("tools") {
  deps = [
    "//src/go/grand_unified_binary",
  ]
  binaries = [
    {
      name = "my_tool"
      source = "grand_unified_binary"
    }
  ]
}

The new templates support this feature as follows:

import("//build/go/go_library.gni")
import("//src/go/grand_unified_binary/gub.gni")
import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")

go_library("my_tool") {
  ...
}

grand_unified_binary("bin") {
  output_name = "my_tool"
}

fuchsia_package("tools") {
  deps = [ ":bin" ]
}

Legacy component index (aka fx run my_package)

The legacy package() template supported a short-form syntax for launching legacy v1 components in the legacy sys shell.

import("//build/package.gni")

executable("bin") {
  output_name = "echo"
  sources = [ "echo.cc" ]
}

package("echo") {
  deps = [ ":bin" ]
  binaries = [
    {
      name = "echo"
    },
  ]
  meta = [
    {
      path = "meta/echo.cmx"
      dest = "echo.cmx"
    },
  ]
}
fx run echo Hello World

This is also known as the Component Index.

The new templates don't support this feature out of the box, but you can use the full launch URL.

fx run fuchsia-pkg://fuchsia.com/echo#meta/echo.cmx Hello World

The plan is to deprecate the legacy shell and the legacy component index along with it, but there is currently no concrete timeline for this deprecation. If you'd like to keep the old behavior, you can do so with this special syntax:

import("//src/sys/build/components.gni")
import("//src/sys/component_index/component_index.gni")

executable("bin") {
  output_name = "echo"
  sources = [ "echo.cc" ]
}

add_to_component_index("component_index") {
  package_name = "echo"
  manifest = "meta/echo.cmx"
}

fuchsia_package_with_single_component("echo") {
  deps = [
    ":bin",
    ":component_index",
  ]
  manifest = "meta/echo.cmx"
}

Other unsupported features

Note that some features of package() are unsupported moving forward. If your package depends on them then at this time it cannot be migrated to the new templates. These unsupported features include:

  • Marking a test as disabled. Instead, change the test source code to mark it as disabled, or comment out the disabled test component from the build file.
  • __deprecated_system_image: the legacy approach to including a package in the system image is not supported moving forward. A solution is being prepared and will be available later in 2021. Nearly all existing uses of this legacy feature are done via the driver_package() wrapper, which currently cannot be migrated.