Google is committed to advancing racial equity for Black communities. See how.

Unsafe code in Rust

unsafe is a dangerous but sometimes necessary escape hatch in Rust. When writing or reviewing unsafe code, it's essential that you:

  • clearly identify all of the assumptions and invariants required by every unsafe block;
  • ensure that those assumptions are met;
  • ensure that those assumptions will continue to be met.

In order to ensure that unsafe invariants are not broken by future editors, each usage of unsafe must be accompanied by a clear, concise comment explaining what assumptions are being made.

Where possible, package up unsafety into a single function or module which provides a safe abstraction to the outside world. FFI calls should usually be exposed through a safe function whose only purpose is to provide a safe wrapper around the function in question. These functions should contain a comment with the following information (if applicable):

  • Preconditions (e.g. what are the valid states of the arguments?)
  • Failure handling (e.g. what values should be free'd? forgotten? invalidated?)
  • Success handling (e.g. what values are created or consumed?)


impl Channel {
    /// Write a message to a channel. Wraps the
    /// [zx_channel_write](//docs/zircon/syscalls/
    /// syscall.
    pub fn write(&self, bytes: &[u8], handles: &mut Vec<Handle>)
            -> Result<(), Status>
        let opts = 0;
        let n_bytes = try!(usize_into_u32(bytes.len()).map_err(|_| Status::OUT_OF_RANGE));
        let n_handles = try!(usize_into_u32(handles.len()).map_err(|_| Status::OUT_OF_RANGE));

        // Requires that `self` contains a currently valid handle or ZX_HANDLE_INVALID.
        // On success, all of the handles in the handles array have been moved.
        // They must be forgotten and not dropped.
        // On error, all handles are still owned by the current process and can be dropped.
        unsafe {
            let status = sys::zx_channel_write(self.raw_handle(), opts, bytes.as_ptr(), n_bytes,
                handles.as_ptr() as *const sys::zx_handle_t, n_handles);
            // Handles were successfully transferred, forget them on sender side

If unsafe code relies on other safe code for correctness, a comment must be left alongside the corresponding safe code indicating what invariants it must uphold and why. Invariants that rely upon the behavior of multiple functions will draw extra scrutiny, and cross-module or cross-crate unsafety requires even more attention. unsafe code that depends on correct behavior of a third-party crate will likely be rejected, and unsafe code that depends upon the internal representation details of third-party types will never be accepted.

Finally, struct definitions containing unsafe types such as *const, *mut, or UnsafeCell must include a comment explaining the internal representation invariants of the type. If the unsafe type is used to perform a mutation OR if it aliases with memory inside another type, there should be an explanation of how it upholds Rust's "aliasing XOR mutation" requirements. If any deriveable traits are purposefully omitted for safety reasons, a comment must be left to prevent future editors from adding the unsafe impls.

The rules above are applied to any additions of unsafe code or any modifications of existing unsafe code.

For more discussion on encapsulating unsafe invariants, see Ralf Jung's "The Scope of Unsafe" and Niko Matsakis's "Tootsie Pop" model.