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Implement a sync LLCPP FIDL client

Prerequisites

This tutorial builds on the FIDL server tutorial. For the full set of FIDL tutorials, refer to the overview.

Overview

This tutorial implements a client for a FIDL protocol and runs it against the server created in the previous tutorial. The client in this tutorial is synchronous. There is an alternate tutorial for asynchronous clients.

If you want to write the code yourself, delete the following directories:

rm -r examples/fidl/llcpp/client_sync/*

Create a stub component

  1. Set up a hello world component in examples/fidl/llcpp/client_sync. You can name the component echo-client, and give the package a name of echo-llcpp-client-sync.

  2. Once you have created your component, ensure that the following works:

    fx set core.x64 --with //examples/fidl/llcpp/client_sync
    
  3. Build the Fuchsia image:

    fx build
    
  4. In a separate terminal, run:

    fx serve
    
  5. In a separate terminal, run:

    fx shell run fuchsia-pkg://fuchsia.com/echo-llcpp-client-sync#meta/echo-client.cmx
    

Edit GN dependencies

  1. Add the following dependencies:

      deps = [
        "//examples/fidl/fuchsia.examples:fuchsia.examples_llcpp",
        "//sdk/lib/fdio",
        "//zircon/system/ulib/service:service-llcpp",
      ]
    
    
  2. Then, include them in main.cc:

    #include <fuchsia/examples/llcpp/fidl.h>
    #include <lib/service/llcpp/service.h>
    #include <zircon/assert.h>
    
    #include <iostream>
    

These dependencies are explained in the server tutorial. The client requires far fewer dependencies because it does not need to run any asynchronous code.

Edit component manifest

  1. Include the Echo protocol in the client component's sandbox by editing the component manifest in client.cmx.

    {
        "include": [
            "syslog/client.shard.cmx"
        ],
        "program": {
            "binary": "bin/fidl_echo_llcpp_client_sync"
        },
        "sandbox": {
            "services": [
                "fuchsia.examples.Echo"
            ]
        }
    }
    
    

Connect to the server

The steps in this section explain how to add code to the main() function that connects the client to the server and makes requests to it.

Connect to the server

The client then connects to the service directory /svc, and uses it to connect to the server.

int main(int argc, const char** argv) {
  // |service::OpenServiceRoot| returns a channel connected to the /svc directory.
  // The remote end of the channel implements the |fuchsia.io/Directory| protocol
  // and contains the capabilities provided to this component.
  auto svc = service::OpenServiceRoot();
  ZX_ASSERT(svc.is_ok());

  // Connect to the fuchsia.examples.Echo protocol.
  auto client_end = service::ConnectAt<fuchsia_examples::Echo>(*svc);
  ZX_ASSERT(client_end.is_ok());

  // Create a synchronous-only client to the Echo protocol.
  auto client = fidl::BindSyncClient(std::move(*client_end));

  {
    // Make an EchoString request, then print out the response.
    auto result = client.EchoString("hello");
    ZX_ASSERT(result.ok());
    std::string reply_string(result->response.data(), result->response.size());
    std::cout << "Got response: " << reply_string << std::endl;
  }

  {
    // Make a SendString request
    auto result = client.SendString("hi");
    // Check that the request was sent successfully.
    ZX_ASSERT(result.ok());

    class EventHandler : public fidl::WireSyncEventHandler<fuchsia_examples::Echo> {
     public:
      EventHandler() = default;

      void OnString(fidl::WireResponse<fuchsia_examples::Echo::OnString>* event) override {
        std::string reply_string(event->response.data(), event->response.size());
        std::cout << "Got event: " << reply_string << std::endl;
      }

      zx_status_t Unknown() override { return ZX_ERR_NOT_SUPPORTED; }
    };

    // Block to receive exactly one event from the server, which is handled using
    // the event handlers defined above.
    EventHandler event_handler;
    ZX_ASSERT(client.HandleOneEvent(event_handler).ok());
  }

  return 0;
}

The service::OpenServiceRoot function initializes a channel, then passes the server end to fdio_service_connect to connect to the /svc directory, returning the client end wrapped in a zx::status result type. We should check for the is_ok() value on the result to determine if any synchronous error occurred.

Connecting to a protocol relative to the service directory is done by calling fdio_service_connect_at, passing it the service directory, the name of the service to connect to, as well as the channel that should get passed to the server. The service::ConnectAt function wraps the low level fdio call, providing the user with a typed client channel endpoint to the requested protocol.

In parallel, the component manager will route the requested service name and channel to the server component, where the connect function implemented in the server tutorial is called with these arguments, binding the channel to the server implementation.

An important point to note here is that this code assumes that /svc already contains an instance of the Echo protocol. This is not the case by default because of the sandboxing provided by the component framework. A workaround will be when running the example at the end of the tutorial.

Send requests to the server

The code makes two requests to the server:

  • An EchoString request
  • A SendString request
int main(int argc, const char** argv) {
  // |service::OpenServiceRoot| returns a channel connected to the /svc directory.
  // The remote end of the channel implements the |fuchsia.io/Directory| protocol
  // and contains the capabilities provided to this component.
  auto svc = service::OpenServiceRoot();
  ZX_ASSERT(svc.is_ok());

  // Connect to the fuchsia.examples.Echo protocol.
  auto client_end = service::ConnectAt<fuchsia_examples::Echo>(*svc);
  ZX_ASSERT(client_end.is_ok());

  // Create a synchronous-only client to the Echo protocol.
  auto client = fidl::BindSyncClient(std::move(*client_end));

  {
    // Make an EchoString request, then print out the response.
    auto result = client.EchoString("hello");
    ZX_ASSERT(result.ok());
    std::string reply_string(result->response.data(), result->response.size());
    std::cout << "Got response: " << reply_string << std::endl;
  }

  {
    // Make a SendString request
    auto result = client.SendString("hi");
    // Check that the request was sent successfully.
    ZX_ASSERT(result.ok());

    class EventHandler : public fidl::WireSyncEventHandler<fuchsia_examples::Echo> {
     public:
      EventHandler() = default;

      void OnString(fidl::WireResponse<fuchsia_examples::Echo::OnString>* event) override {
        std::string reply_string(event->response.data(), event->response.size());
        std::cout << "Got event: " << reply_string << std::endl;
      }

      zx_status_t Unknown() override { return ZX_ERR_NOT_SUPPORTED; }
    };

    // Block to receive exactly one event from the server, which is handled using
    // the event handlers defined above.
    EventHandler event_handler;
    ZX_ASSERT(client.HandleOneEvent(event_handler).ok());
  }

  return 0;
}

The protocol methods on the client object (EchoString and SendString) return a result object, which will contain either an error or the contents of the response (if any). When a response is expected, the client will block until the response is received.

A client object is generated for each protocol, which is described further in the LLCPP bindings reference.

Handle events

The client object allows handling events by specifying an event delegate, where each method corresponds to one of the events of the protocol, plus a Unknown handler for when an unknown event is received.

The code defines a handler, which prints the contents of an OnString event, then calls client.HandleOneEvent() to block until an event is received. If an unknown event is received, its return value becomes the return value of the HandleOneEvent call:

int main(int argc, const char** argv) {
  // |service::OpenServiceRoot| returns a channel connected to the /svc directory.
  // The remote end of the channel implements the |fuchsia.io/Directory| protocol
  // and contains the capabilities provided to this component.
  auto svc = service::OpenServiceRoot();
  ZX_ASSERT(svc.is_ok());

  // Connect to the fuchsia.examples.Echo protocol.
  auto client_end = service::ConnectAt<fuchsia_examples::Echo>(*svc);
  ZX_ASSERT(client_end.is_ok());

  // Create a synchronous-only client to the Echo protocol.
  auto client = fidl::BindSyncClient(std::move(*client_end));

  {
    // Make an EchoString request, then print out the response.
    auto result = client.EchoString("hello");
    ZX_ASSERT(result.ok());
    std::string reply_string(result->response.data(), result->response.size());
    std::cout << "Got response: " << reply_string << std::endl;
  }

  {
    // Make a SendString request
    auto result = client.SendString("hi");
    // Check that the request was sent successfully.
    ZX_ASSERT(result.ok());

    class EventHandler : public fidl::WireSyncEventHandler<fuchsia_examples::Echo> {
     public:
      EventHandler() = default;

      void OnString(fidl::WireResponse<fuchsia_examples::Echo::OnString>* event) override {
        std::string reply_string(event->response.data(), event->response.size());
        std::cout << "Got event: " << reply_string << std::endl;
      }

      zx_status_t Unknown() override { return ZX_ERR_NOT_SUPPORTED; }
    };

    // Block to receive exactly one event from the server, which is handled using
    // the event handlers defined above.
    EventHandler event_handler;
    ZX_ASSERT(client.HandleOneEvent(event_handler).ok());
  }

  return 0;
}

Run the client

If you run the client directly, it will not connect to the server correctly because the client does not automatically get the Echo protocol provided in its sandbox (in /svc). To get this to work, a launcher tool is provided that launches the server, creates a new Environment for the client that provides the server's protocol, then launches the client in it.

  1. Configure your GN build:

    fx set core.x64 --with //examples/fidl/llcpp/server --with
    //examples/fidl/client/client_sync --with //examples/fidl/test:echo-launcher
    
  2. Build the Fuchsia image:

    fx build
    
  3. Run the launcher by passing it the client URL, the server URL, and the protocol that the server provides to the client:

    fx shell run fuchsia-pkg://fuchsia.com/echo-launcher#meta/launcher.cmx fuchsia-pkg://fuchsia.com/echo-llcpp-client-sync#meta/echo-client.cmx fuchsia-pkg://fuchsia.com/echo-llcpp-server#meta/echo-server.cmx fuchsia.examples.Echo
    

You should see the print output in the QEMU console (or using fx log).

[189209.659] 859216:859218> Running echo server
[189209.778] 859216:859218> echo_server_llcpp: Incoming connection for fuchsia.examples.Echo
[189209.803] 859554:859556> Got response: hello
[189209.804] 859554:859556> Got event: hi